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Thermodynamics of Lattice QCD with Chiral 4-Fermion Interactions  [PDF]
J. B. Kogut,J. -F. Lagae,D. K. Sinclair
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.58.034504
Abstract: We have studied lattice QCD with an additional, irrelevant 4-fermion interaction having a U(1)xU(1) chiral symmetry, at finite temperatures. Adding this 4-fermion term allowed us to work at zero quark mass, which would have otherwise been impossible. The theory with 2 massless staggered quark flavours appears to have a first order finite temperature phase transition at N_t=4 for the value of 4-fermion coupling we have chosen, in contrast to what is expected for 2-flavour QCD. The pion screening mass is seen to vanish below this transition, only to become massive and degenerate with the sigma (f_0) above this transition where the chiral symmetry is restored, as is seen by the vanishing of the chiral condensate.
Scaling behaviour at the $N_t=6$ chiral phase transition for 2-flavour lattice QCD with massless staggered quarks, and an irrelevant 4-fermion interaction  [PDF]
J. B. Kogut,D. K. Sinclair
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.64.034508
Abstract: We have simulated lattice QCD with 2 flavours of massless staggered quarks. An irrelevant chiral 4-fermion interaction was added to the standard quark action to allow us to simulate at zero quark mass. Thermodynamics was studied on lattices of temporal extent 6. Clear evidence for a second order chiral transition was observed and the critical exponents $\beta_{mag}$, $\delta$, $\nu$ and $\gamma_{mag}$ were measured. These exponents did not agree with those expected by standard universality arguments. They were, however, consistent with tricritical behaviour. The $\pi$ and $\sigma$ screening masses were measured and showed clear evidence for chiral symmetry restoration at this transition.
Two-Flavor Staggered Fermion Thermodynamics at N_t = 12  [PDF]
Claude Bernard,Tom Blum,Carleton DeTar,Steven Gottlieb,Kari Rummukainen,Urs M. Heller,James Hetrick,Douglas Toussaint,Robert L. Sugar
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.54.4585
Abstract: We present results of an ongoing study of the nature of the high temperature crossover in QCD with two light fermion flavors. These results are obtained with the conventional staggered fermion action at the smallest lattice spacing to date---approximately 0.1 fm. Of particular interest are a study of the temperature of the crossover a determination of the induced baryon charge and baryon susceptibility, the scalar susceptibility, and the chiral order parameter, used to test models of critical behavior associated with chiral symmetry restoration. From our new data and published results for N_t = 4, 6, and 8, we determine the QCD magnetic equation of state from the chiral order parameter using O(4) and mean field critical exponents and compare it with the corresponding equation of state obtained from an O(4) spin model and mean field theory. We also present a scaling analysis of the Polyakov loop, suggesting a temperature dependent ``constituent quark free energy.''
The Study of Chiral Restoration using the Quark-Gluon Mixed Condensate g<\bar{q} σG q> in Lattice QCD at Finite Temperature  [PDF]
Takumi Doi,Noriyoshi Ishii,Makoto Oka,Hideo Suganuma
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: The quark-gluon mixed condensate g<\bar{q} \sigma G q> is studied using SU(3)c lattice QCD with the Kogut-Susskind fermion at the quenched level. Using the lattices as \beta = 6.0 with 16^3 * N_t (N_t=16,12,10,8,6,4), \beta = 6.1 with 20^3 * N_t (N_t=20,12,10,8,6) and \beta = 6.2 with 24^3 * N_t (N_t=24,16,12,10,8) in high statistics of 100-1000 gauge configurations, we perform accurate measurement of the thermal effects on g<\bar{q} \sigma G q> as well as <\bar{q}q> in the chiral limit. We find that the thermal effects on both the condensates are very weak except for the vicinity of T_c, while both the condensates suddenly vanish around T_c \simeq 280 MeV, which indicates strong chiral restoration near T_c. We also find that the ratio m_0^2 = g<\bar{q} \sigma G q>/ <\bar{q}q> is almost independent of the temperature even in the very vicinity of T_c, which means that these two different condensates obey the same critical behavior. This nontrivial similarity between them would impose constraints on the chiral structure of the QCD vacuum near T_c.
The chiral phase transition for lattice QCD with 2 colour-sextet quarks  [PDF]
J. B. Kogut,D. K. Sinclair
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.054508
Abstract: QCD with 2 flavours of massless colour-sextet quarks is studied as a possible walking-Technicolor candidate. We simulate the lattice version of this model at finite temperatures near to the chiral-symmetry restoration transition, to determine whether it is indeed a walking theory (QCD-like with a running coupling which evolves slowly over an appreciable range of length scales) or if it has an infrared fixed point, making it a conformal field theory. The lattice spacing at this transition is decreased towards zero by increasing the number $N_t$ of lattice sites in the temporal direction. Our simulations are performed at $N_t=4,6,8,12$, on lattices with spatial extent much larger than the temporal extent. A range of small fermion masses is chosen to make predictions for the chiral (zero mass) limit. We find that the bare lattice coupling does decrease as the lattice spacing is decreased. However, it decreases more slowly than would be predicted by asymptotic freedom. We discuss whether this means that the coupling is approaching a finite value as lattice $N_t$ is increased -- the conformal option, or if the apparent disagreement with the scaling predicted by asymptotic freedom is because the lattice coupling is a poor expansion parameter, and the theory walks. Currently, evidence favours QCD with 2 colour-sextet quarks being a conformal field theory. Other potential sources of disagreement with the walking hypothesis are also discussed. We also report an estimate of the position of the deconfinement transition for $N_t=12$, needed for choosing parameters for zero-temperature simulations.
Thermodynamics of Lattice QCD with massless quarks and chiral 4-fermion interactions  [PDF]
J. B. Kogut,J. -F. Lagae,D. K. Sinclair
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(99)85108-1
Abstract: We have simulated lattice QCD with an irrelevant 4-fermion interaction and 2 zero mass quarks. The chiral phase transition is observed to be second order and we discuss extraction of critical exponents.
Dirac Spectrum, Axial Anomaly and the QCD Chiral Phase Transition  [PDF]
Shailesh Chandrasekharan,Norman Christ
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1016/0920-5632(96)00115-6
Abstract: The QCD phase transition is studied on $16^3$ and $32^3 \times 4$ lattices both with and without quark loops. We introduce a new zero-flavor or quenched species of quark $\zeta$ and study the resulting chiral condensate, $\azbz$ as a function of the $\zeta$ mass, $m_\zeta$. By examining $\azbz$ for $10^{-10} \le m_\zeta \le 10$ we gain considerable information about the spectrum of Dirac eigenvalues. A comparison of $ma=0.01$ and 0.025 shows little dependence of the Dirac spectrum on such a light, dynamical quark mass, after an overall shift in $\beta$ is removed. The presence of sufficient small eigenvalues to support anomalous chiral symmetry breaking in the high temperature phase is examined quantitatively. In an effort to enhance these small eigenvalues, $\azbz$ is also examined in the pure gauge theory in the region of the deconfinement transition with unexpected results. Above the critical temperature, the three $Z_3$ phases show dramatically different chiral behavior. Surprisingly, the real phase shows chiral symmetry, suggesting that a system with one flavor of staggered fermion at $N_t=4$ will possess a chiral a phase transition---behavior not expected in the continuum limit.
QCD with chiral 4-fermion interactions ($χ$QCD)  [PDF]
J. B. Kogut,D. K. Sinclair
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(96)00634-2
Abstract: Lattice QCD with staggered quarks is augmented by the addition of a chiral 4-fermion interaction. The Dirac operator is now non-singular at $m_q=0$, decreasing the computing requirements for light quark simulations by at least an order of magnitude. We present preliminary results from simulations at finite and zero temperatures for $m_q=0$, with and without gauge fields.
Thermodynamics of lattice QCD with 3 flavours of colour-sextet quarks II: N_t=6 and N_t=8  [PDF]
J. B. Kogut,D. K. Sinclair
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.014506
Abstract: We have been studying QCD with 2 flavours of colour-sextet quarks as a candidate walking-Technicolor theory using lattice-QCD simulations. The evolution of the coupling constant with lattice spacing is measured at the finite-temperature chiral transition to determine if this theory is asymptotically free and hence QCD-like. The lattice spacing is varied by changing the number of lattice sites, $N_t$, in the Euclidean time direction. QCD with 3 flavours is studied for comparison. Since this theory is expected to be conformal, with an infrared fixed point, the coupling constant at the chiral transition should approach a non-zero value as $N_t$ becomes large. Our earlier simulations on lattices with $N_t=4$ and $N_t=6$ exhibited a significant decrease in coupling at the chiral transition as $N_t$ was increased. We have now extended these simulations to $N_t=8$, and performed additional simulations at $N_t=6$ to measure the coupling constant at the chiral transition more precisely. These indicate that while there is an appreciable decrease in coupling between $N_t=6$ and $N_t=8$, this is much smaller than that between $N_t=4$ and $N_t=6$. Thus we are hopeful that we are approaching the large-$N_t$ limit. However, further simulations at larger $N_t$(s) are needed.
Thermodynamics of lattice QCD with 2 sextet quarks on N_t=8 lattices  [PDF]
J. B. Kogut,D. K. Sinclair
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.84.074504
Abstract: We continue our lattice simulations of QCD with 2 flavours of colour-sextet quarks as a model for conformal or walking technicolor. A 2-loop perturbative calculation of the $\beta$-function which describes the evolution of this theory's running coupling constant predicts that it has a second zero at a finite coupling. This non-trivial zero would be an infrared stable fixed point, in which case the theory with massless quarks would be a conformal field theory. However, if the interaction between quarks and antiquarks becomes strong enough that a chiral condensate forms before this IR fixed point is reached, the theory is QCD-like with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry and confinement. However, the presence of the nearby IR fixed point means that there is a range of couplings for which the running coupling evolves very slowly, i.e. it 'walks'. We are simulating the lattice version of this theory with staggered quarks at finite temperature studying the changes in couplings at the deconfinement and chiral-symmetry restoring transitions as the temporal extent ($N_t$) of the lattice, measured in lattice units, is increased. Our earlier results on lattices with $N_t=4,6$ show both transitions move to weaker couplings as $N_t$ increases consistent with walking behaviour. In this paper we extend these calculations to $N_t=8$. Although both transition again move to weaker couplings the change in the coupling at the chiral transition from $N_t=6$ to $N_t=8$ is appreciably smaller than that from $N_t=4$ to $N_t=6$. This indicates that at $N_t=4,6$ we are seeing strong coupling effects and that we will need results from $N_t > 8$ to determine if the chiral-transition coupling approaches zero as $N_t \rightarrow \infty$, as needed for the theory to walk.
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