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Radio properties of Compact Steep Spectrum and GHz-Peaked Spectrum radio sources  [PDF]
M. Orienti
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Compact steep spectrum (CSS) and GHz-peaked spectrum (GPS) radio sources represent a large fraction of the extragalactic objects in flux density-limited samples. They are compact, powerful radio sources whose synchrotron peak frequency ranges between a few hundred MHz to several GHz. CSS and GPS radio sources are currently interpreted as objects in which the radio emission is in an early evolutionary stage. In this contribution I review the radio properties and the physical characteristics of this class of radio sources, and the interplay between their radio emission and the ambient medium of the host galaxy.
ISO observations of a sample of Compact Steep Spectrum and GHz Peaked Spectrum Radio Galaxies  [PDF]
C. Fanti,F. Pozzi,R. Fanti,S. A. Baum,C. P. O'Dea,M. Bremer,D. Dallacasa,H. Falcke,T. de Graauw,A. Marecki,G. Miley,H. Rottgering,R. T. Schilizzi,I. Snellen,R. E Spencer,C. Stanghellini
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: We present results from observations obtained with ISOPHOT, on board the ISO satellite, of a representative sample of seventeen CSS/GPS radio galaxies and of a control sample of sixteen extended radio galaxies spanning similar ranges in redshift (0.2 <= z <= 0.8) and radio luminosity (P_2.7 GHz >= 10^26 W/Hz). The observations have been performed at lambda = 60, 90, 174 and 200 microns. Seven of the CSS/GPS sources have detections >= 3 sigma at one or more wavelengths, one of which is detected at >= 5 sigma. By co-adding the data we have obtained average flux densities at the four wavelengths. We found no evidence that the FIR luminosities of the CSS/GPS sources are significantly different from those of the extended objects and therefore there is not any support for CSS/GPS sources being objects "frustrated" by an abnormally dense ambient medium. The two samples were then combined, providing FIR information on a new sample of radio galaxies at intermediate redshifts. We compare this information with what previously known from IRAS and discuss the average properties of radio galaxies in the redshift range 0.2 - 0.8. The FIR emission cannot be accounted for by extrapolation of the synchrotron radio spectrum and we attribute it to thermal dust emission. The average FIR luminosity is >= 6*10^11 L_sun. Over the observed frequency range the infrared spectrum can be described by a power law with spectral index alpha >~1.0 +/- 0.2. Assuming the emission to be due to dust, a range of temperatures is required, from >=80 K to \~25 K. The dust masses required to explain the FIR emission range from 5*10^5 M_sun for the hotter component up to 2*10^8 M_sun for the colder one. (abridged)
A new sample of faint Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum radio sources  [PDF]
I. A. G. Snellen,R. T. Schilizzi,A. G. de Bruyn,G. K. Miley,R. B. Rengelink,H. J. A. Rottgering,M. N. Bremer
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1051/aas:1998281
Abstract: The Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) has been used to select a sample of Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources at flux densities one to two orders of magnitude lower than bright GPS sources investigated in earlier studies. Sources with inverted spectra at frequencies above 325 MHz have been observed with the WSRT at 1.4 and 5 GHz and with the VLA at 8.6 and 15 GHz to select genuine GPS sources. This has resulted in a sample of 47 GPS sources with peak frequencies ranging from ~500 MHz to >15 GHz, and peak flux densities ranging from ~40 to ~900 mJy. Counts of GPS sources in our sample as a function of flux density have been compared with counts of large scale sources from WENSS scaled to 2 GHz, the typical peak frequency of our GPS sources. The counts can be made similar if the number of large scale sources at 2 GHz is divided by 250, and their flux densities increase by a factor of 10. On the scenario that all GPS sources evolve into large scale radio sources, these results show that the lifetime of a typical GPS source is ~250 times shorter than a typical large scale radio source, and that the source luminosity must decrease by a factor of ~10 in evolving from GPS to large scale radio source. However, we note that the redshift distributions of GPS and large scale radio sources are different and that this hampers a direct and straightforward interpretation of the source counts. Further modeling of radio source evolution combined with cosmological evolution of the radio luminosity function for large sources is required.
VLBA observations of GHz-Peaked-Spectrum radio sources at 15 GHz  [PDF]
C. Stanghellini,D. Dallacasa,C. P. O'Dea,S. A. Baum,R. Fanti,C. Fanti
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011101
Abstract: We present VLBA observations at 15 GHz of ten GHz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources. The cores are often difficult or impossible to locate. When likely cores are found, they account for a small fraction of the flux density in GPS galaxies - around or below 2%, while in GPS quasars they can account for more than 20% of the total flux density. We detect low polarization in the GPS sources -- i.e., typically less than a few percent and often less than one percent. This establishes that low polarization in the parsec scale structure is an important defining characteristic of the GPS sources. The dichotomy in the radio morphology versus optical identification, i.e., galaxies are symmetric and quasars are not, is basically confirmed from these new data, which also indicate that the radio emission from GPS quasars is dominated by a jet, with often a weak or hidden core, suggesting they are at moderate angles to the line of sight, and so are only moderately beamed.
e-VLBI observations of GHz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources in nearby galaxies from the AT20G survey  [PDF]
Paul J. Hancock,Steven J. Tingay,Elaine M. Sadler,Chris Phillips,Adam T. Deller
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15055.x
Abstract: GHz-peaked spectrum (GPS) radio sources are thought to be young objects which later evolve into FR-I and FR-II radio galaxies. We have used the Australia Telescope 20GHz (AT20G) survey catalogue to select a uniform sample of GPS sources with spectral peaks above 5GHz, which should represent the youngest members of this class. In this paper, we present e-VLBI observations of ten such objects which are associated with nearby (z<0.15) galaxies and so represent a new population of local, low--power GPS sources. Our e-VLBI observations were carried out at 4.8GHz with the Australia Telescope Long Baseline Array (LBA) using a real--time software correlator. All ten sources were detected, and were unresolved on scales of ~100mas, implying that they are typically less than 100pc in linear size.
The GHz-Peaked Spectrum radio galaxy 2021+614: Detection of slow motion in a compact symmetric object  [PDF]
Wolfgang Tschager,Richard T. Schilizzi,Huub J. A. R"ottgering,Ignas A. G. Snellen,George K. Miley
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: We have analysed VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Programme) data at 5 GHz and ground-based VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) data at 15 GHz for the GHz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio galaxy 2021+614. Its morphology is consistent with it being a compact symmetric source extending over 30 h^-1 pc (H_0 = 100 h km s^-1 Mpc^-1, q_0 = 0.5). From a comparison with earlier observations we have detected an increase in the separation and a decrease in the size of the two most prominent components. We determine the projected speed with which these two components recede from each other to be 0.12+/-0.02 h^-1 c. Given the projected separation of the two components of 16.1 h^-1 pc, the infered kinematic age is 440+/-80 years, measured in the source reference frame. These results provide additional support for the contention that compact symmetric radio objects are young and the precursors of the classical FR I or FR II radio sources. The sizes of individual components appear to contract with time which is not consistent with the self-similar evolution model for peaked spectrum sources. In order to overcome problems related to the estimation of uncertainties for separation measurements between source components, we have developed and applied a method that compares two uv-data sets obtained at different epochs. This method parametrizes the most important structural change, the increase in separation between components, by rescaling the u and v axis of the amplitude interference pattern. It provides best-fit values for the parameters and uses a bootstrap method to estimate the errors in the parameters.
Absolute kinematics of radio source components in the complete S5 polar cap sample I. First and second epoch maps at 8.4 GHz  [PDF]
E. Ros,J. M. Marcaide,J. C. Guirado,M. A. Perez-Torres
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20010987
Abstract: We observed the thirteen extragalactic radio sources of the S5 polar cap sample at 8.4 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array, on 1997.93 and 1999.41. We present the maps from those two epochs and briefly discuss the morphological changes experimented by some of the radio sources in the 1.4 yr elapsed. These results correspond to the first two epochs at 8.4 GHz of a program directed to study the absolute kinematics of the radio source components of the members of the sample by means of phase delay astrometry at 8.4, 15 and 43 GHz.
Gigahertz-Peaked Spectrum Radio Sources in Nearby Galaxies  [PDF]
N. M. Nagar,A. S. Wilson,H. Falcke,J. S. Ulvestad,C. G. Mundell
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: There is now strong evidence that many low-luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs) contain accreting massive black holes and that the nuclear radio emission is dominated by parsec-scale jets launched by these black holes. Here, we present preliminary results on the 1.4 GHz to 667 GHz spectral shape of a well-defined sample of 16 LLAGNs. The LLAGNs have a falling spectrum at high GHz frequencies. Several also show a low-frequency turnover with a peak in the 1-20 GHz range. The results provide further support for jet dominance of the core radio emission. The LLAGNs show intriguing similarities with gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) sources.
The local radio-galaxy population at 20 GHz  [PDF]
Elaine M. Sadler,Ronald D. Ekers,Elizabeth Mahony,Tom Mauch,Tara Murphy
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2239
Abstract: We have made the first detailed study of the high-frequency radio-source population in the local universe, using a sample of 202 radio sources from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) survey identified with galaxies from the 6dF Galaxy Survey (6dFGS). The AT20G-6dFGS galaxies have a median redshift of z=0.058 and span a wide range in radio luminosity, allowing us to make the first measurement of the local radio luminosity function at 20 GHz. Our sample includes some classical FR-1 and FR-2 radio galaxies, but most of the AT20G-6dFGS galaxies host compact (FR-0) radio AGN which appear lack extended radio emission even at lower frequencies. Most of these FR-0 sources show no evidence for relativistic beaming, and the FR-0 class appears to be a mixed population which includes young Compact Steep-Spectrum (CSS) and Gigahertz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio galaxies. We see a strong dichotomy in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies of FR-1 and FR-2 radio sources, with the FR-1 systems found almost exclusively in WISE `early-type' galaxies and the FR-2 radio sources in WISE `late-type' galaxies. The host galaxies of the flat- and steep-spectrum radio sources have a similar distribution in both K--band luminosity and WISE colours, though galaxies with flat-spectrum sources are more likely to show weak emission lines in their optical spectra. We conclude that these flat-spectrum and steep-spectrum radio sources mainly represent different stages in radio-galaxy evolution, rather than beamed and unbeamed radio-source populations.
An evolutionary model for GHz Peaked Spectrum Sources. Predictions for high frequency surveys  [PDF]
G. De Zotti,G. L. Granato,L. Silva,D. Maino,L. Danese
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We have explored, in the general framework of the ``young source'' scenario, evolutionary models for GHz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) galaxies and quasars which reproduce the observed counts, redshift and peak frequency distributions of currently available samples. Substantially different cosmological evolution properties are found for the two populations: the quasar luminosity function must evolve strongly up to $z\sim 1$, while the data on galaxies may be consistent with no evolution. The models show that GPS sources (mostly quasars) may comprise quite a significant fraction of bright ($S> 1 $Jy) radio sources at $\nu \geq 30 $GHz if the intrinsic distribution of peak frequencies extends up to $\sim 1000 $GHz. In any case, however, their fraction decreases rapidly with decreasing flux and their contribution to small scale fluctuations in the frequency range covered by the forthcoming space missions MAP and Planck Surveyor is expected to be minor.
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