Abstract:
Using Langevin simulations, we have investigated numerically the depinning dynamics of driven two-dimensional colloids subject to the randomly distributed point-like pinning centres. With increasing strength of pinning, we find a crossover from elastic to plastic depinnings, accompanied by an order to disorder transition of state and a substantial increase in the depinning force. In the elastic regime, no peaks are found in the differential curves of the velocity－force dependence (VFD) and the transverse motion is almost none. In addition, the scaling relationship between velocity and force is found to be valid above depinning. However, when one enters the plastic regime, a peak appears in the differential curves of VFD and transverse diffusion occurs above depinning. Furthermore, history dependence is found in the plastic regime.

Abstract:
Large scale numerical simulations are used to study the elastic dynamics of two-dimensional vortex lattices driven on a disordered medium in the case of weak disorder. We investigate the so-called elastic depinning transition by decreasing the driving force from the elastic dynamical regime to the state pinned by the quenched disorder. Similarly to the plastic depinning transition, we find results compatible with a second order phase transition, although both depinning transitions are very different from many viewpoints. We evaluate three critical exponents of the elastic depinning transition. $\beta = 0.29 \pm 0.03$ is found for the velocity exponent at zero temperature, and from the velocity-temperature curves we extract the critical exponent $\delta^{-1} = 0.28 \pm 0.05$. Furthermore, in contrast with charge-density waves, a finite-size scaling analysis suggests the existence of a unique diverging length at the depinning threshold with an exponent $\nu= 1.04 \pm 0.04$, which controls the critical force distribution, the finite-size crossover force distribution and the intrinsic correlation length. Finally, a scaling relation is found between velocity and temperature with the $\beta$ and $\delta$ critical exponents both independent with regard to pinning strength and disorder realizations.

Abstract:
A mesoscopic model of amorphous plasticity is discussed in the wider context of depinning models. After embedding in a d + 1 dimensional space, where the accumulated plastic strain lives along the additional dimension, the gradual plastic deformation of amorphous media can be regarded as the motion of an elastic manifold in a disordered landscape. While the associated depinning transition leads to scaling properties, the quadrupolar Eshelby interactions at play induce specific additional features like shear-banding and weak ergodicity breakdown. The latters are shown to be controlled by the existence of soft modes of the quadrupolar interaction, the consequence of which is discussed in the context of depinning.

Abstract:
We developed a 3D flux_line lattice model with magnetic interactions between intraplane and interplane vortices to simulate the transport properties and the dynamic behavior of disordered anisotropic superconductors. We observed a double peak in the differential resistivity as the driving current increases, which corresponds to a two-step depinning in the vortex motion. Between the two peaks we also observed a reentering pinning phase. We also show that the transition from 2D plastic flow to 3D elastic flow of vortex motion is a recoupling transition which is associated with the double peak in differential resistivity. The increase of critical current of 3D-2D transition with the increasing of magnetic field (decreasing of relative interlayer coupling strength), indicates of a second peak effect.

Abstract:
We study numerically thermal effects at the depinning transition of an elastic string driven in a two-dimensional uncorrelated disorder potential. The velocity of the string exactly at the sample critical force is shown to behave as $V \sim T^\psi$, with $\psi$ the thermal rounding exponent. We show that the computed value of the thermal rounding exponent, $\psi = 0.15$, is robust and accounts for the different scaling properties of several observables both in the steady-state and in the transient relaxation to the steady-state. In particular, we show the compatibility of the thermal rounding exponent with the scaling properties of the steady-state structure factor, the universal short-time dynamics of the transient velocity at the sample critical force, and the velocity scaling function describing the joint dependence of the steady-state velocity on the external drive and temperature.

Abstract:
Typically, the plastic yield stress of a sample is determined from a stress-strain curve by defining a yield strain and reading off the stress required to attain it. However, it is not a priori clear that yield strengths of microscale samples measured this way should display the correct finite size scaling. Here we study plastic yield as a depinning transition of a 1+1 dimensional interface, and consider how finite size effects depend on the choice of yield strain, as well as the presence of hardening and the strength of elastic coupling. Our results indicate that in sufficiently large systems, the choice of yield strain is unimportant, but in smaller systems one must take care to avoid spurious effects.

Abstract:
We study a model of two layers, each consisting of a d-dimensional elastic object driven over a random substrate, and mutually interacting through a viscous coupling. For this model, the mean-field theory (i.e. a fully connected model) predicts a transition from elastic depinning to hysteretic plastic depinning as disorder or viscous coupling is increased. A functional RG analysis shows that any small inter-layer viscous coupling destablizes the standard (decoupled) elastic depinning FRG fixed point for d <= 4, while for d > 4 most aspects of the mean-field theory are recovered. A one-loop study at non-zero velocity indicates, for d<4, coexistence of a moving state and a pinned state below the elastic depinning threshold, with hysteretic plastic depinning for periodic and non-periodic driven layers. A 2-loop analysis of quasi-statics unveils the possibility of more subtle effects, including a new universality class for non-periodic objects. We also study the model in d=0, i.e. two coupled particles, and show that hysteresis does not always exist as the periodic steady state with coupled layers can be dynamically unstable. It is also proved that stable pinned configurations remain dynamically stable in presence of a viscous coupling in any dimension d. Moreover, the layer model for periodic objects is stable to an infinitesimal commensurate density coupling. Our work shows that a careful study of attractors in phase space and their basin of attraction is necessary to obtain a firm conclusion for dimensions d=1,2,3.

Abstract:
Fractal patterns are observed in computational mechanics of elastic-plastic transitions in two models of linear elastic/perfectly-plastic random heterogeneous materials: (1) a composite made of locally isotropic grains with weak random fluctuations in elastic moduli and/or yield limits; and (2) a polycrystal made of randomly oriented anisotropic grains. In each case, the spatial assignment of material randomness is a non-fractal, strict-white-noise field on a 256 x 256 square lattice of homogeneous, square-shaped grains; the flow rule in each grain follows associated plasticity. These lattices are subjected to simple shear loading increasing through either one of three macroscopically uniform boundary conditions (kinematic, mixed-orthogonal or traction), admitted by the Hill-Mandel condition. Upon following the evolution of a set of grains that become plastic, we find that it has a fractal dimension increasing from 0 towards 2 as the material transitions from elastic to perfectly-plastic. While the grains possess sharp elastic-plastic stress-strain curves, the overall stress-strain responses are smooth and asymptote toward perfectly-plastic flows; these responses and the fractal dimension-strain curves are almost identical for three different loadings. The randomness in elastic moduli alone is sufficient to generate fractal patterns at the transition, but has a weaker effect than the randomness in yield limits. In the model with isotropic grains, as the random fluctuations vanish (i.e. the composite becomes a homogeneous body), a sharp elastic-plastic transition is recovered.

Abstract:
We provide evidence that plastic depinning falls into the same class of phenomena as the random organization which was recently studied in periodically driven particle systems [L. Corte et al., Nature Phys. 4, 420 (2008)]. In the plastic flow system, the pinned regime corresponds to the quiescent state and the moving state corresponds to the fluctuating state. When an external force is suddenly applied, the system eventually organizes into one of these two states with a time scale that diverges as a power law at a nonequilibrium transition. We propose a simple experiment to test for this transition in colloidal systems and superconducting vortex systems with random disorder.

Abstract:
We examine the depinning transitions and the temperature versus driving force phase diagram for magnetically interacting pancake vortices in layered superconductors. For strong disorder the initial depinning is plastic followed by a sharp hysteretic transition to a 3D ordered state for increasing driving force. Our results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for driven anisotropic charge density wave systems. We also show that a temperature induced peak effect in the critical current occurs due to the onset of plasticity between the layers.