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Analysis of chemical abundances in planetary nebulae with [WC] central stars. II. Chemical abundances and the abundance discrepancy factor  [PDF]
J. Garcia-Rojas,M. Pe?a,C. Morisset,G. Delgado-Inglada,A. Mesa-Delgado,M. T. Ruiz
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322354
Abstract: (Abridged) We present the abundance analysis of 12 PNe ionized by [WC]-type stars and wels obtained from high-resolution spectrophotometric data. Our main aims are to determine the chemical composition of the PNe and to study the behaviour of the abundance discrepancy problem (ADF) in this type of planetary nebulae. The detection of a large number of optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) from different ions were presented previously. Most of the ORLs were reported for the first time in these PNe. Ionic abundances were derived from the available CELs and ORLs, using previously determined physical conditions. Based on these two sets of ionic abundances, we derived the total chemical abundances in the nebulae using suitable ICFs (when available). In spite of the [WC] nature of the central stars, moderate ADF(O^++), in the range from 1.2 to 4, were found for all the objects. We found that when the quality of the spectra is high enough the ORLs O^++/H^+ abundance ratios obtained from different multiplets excited mainly by recombination are very similar. Possible dependence of ADFs with some nebular characteristics were analysed, finding no correlation. Abundances derived from CELs were corrected by determining the t^2 parameter. O abundances for PNe, derived from ORLs, are in general larger than the solar abundance. We derived the C/O ratio from ORLs and N/O and alpha-element/O ratios from CELs and found that these PNe are, in average, N-and C-richer than the average of large PN samples. About half of our sample is C-rich (C/O>1). The alpha-elements grow in lockstep with O abundance. Comparing the N/O and C /O ratios with those derived from stellar evolution models, we estimate that about half of our PNe have progenitors with initial masses > 4 M_sun. No correlation was found between the stellar [WC]-type and the nebular abundances.
A homogeneous spectroscopic analysis of host stars of transiting planets  [PDF]
M. Ammler-von Eiff,N. C. Santos,S. G. Sousa,J. Fernandes,T. Guillot,G. Israelian,M. Mayor,C. Melo
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912360
Abstract: The analysis of transiting extra-solar planets provides an enormous amount of information about the formation and evolution of planetary systems. A precise knowledge of the host stars is necessary to derive the planetary properties accurately. The properties of the host stars, especially their chemical composition, are also of interest in their own right. Information about planet formation is inferred by, among others, correlations between different parameters such as the orbital period and the metallicity of the host stars. The stellar properties studied should be derived as homogeneously as possible. The present work provides new, uniformly derived parameters for 13 host stars of transiting planets. Effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulence parameter, and iron abundance were derived from spectra of both high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution by assuming iron excitation and ionization equilibria. For some stars, the new parameters differ from previous determinations, which is indicative of changes in the planetary radii. A systematic offset in the abundance scale with respect to previous assessments is found for the TrES and HAT objects. Our abundance measurements are remarkably robust in terms of the uncertainties in surface gravities. The iron abundances measured in the present work are supplemented by all previous determinations using the same analysis technique. The distribution of iron abundance then agrees well with the known metal-rich distribution of planet host stars. To facilitate future studies, the spectroscopic results of the current work are supplemented by the findings for other host stars of transiting planets, for a total dataset of 50 objects.
Abundances in Stars with Debris Disks  [PDF]
Adam M. Ritchey,Guillermo Gonzalez,Myra Stone,George Wallerstein
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921313008934
Abstract: We present preliminary results of a detailed chemical abundance analysis for a sample of solar-type stars known to exhibit excess infrared emission associated with dusty debris disks. Our sample of 28 stars was selected based on results from the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS) Spitzer Legacy Program, for the purpose of investigating whether the stellar atmospheres have been polluted with planetary material, which could indicate that the metallicity enhancement in stars with planets is due to metal-rich infall in the later stages of star and planet formation. The preliminary results presented here consist of precise abundances for 15 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni) for half of the stars in our sample. We find that none of the stars investigated so far exhibit the expected trend of increasing elemental abundance with increasing condensation temperature, which would result from the stars having accreted planetary debris. Rather, the slopes of linear least-squares fits to the abundance data are either negative or consistent with zero. In both cases, our results may indicate that, like the Sun, the debris disk host stars are deficient in refractory elements, a possible signature of terrestrial and/or gas giant planet formation.
Abundances of Refractory Elements for G-type Stars with Extrasolar Planets  [PDF]
Wonseok Kang,Sang-Gak Lee,Kang-Min Kim
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/736/2/87
Abstract: We confirm the difference of chemical abundance between stars with and without exoplanet, as well as present the relation between chemical abundances and the physical properties of exoplanets such as planetary mass and semi-major axis of planetary orbit. We have obtained the spectra of 52 G-type stars with BOES (BOAO Echelle Spectrograph) and carried out the abundance analysis for 12 elements of Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni. We first have found that the [Mn/Fe] ratios of planet-host stars are higher than those of comparisons in the whole metallicity range, and in metal-poor stars of [Fe/H] $<$ -0.4, the abundance difference have been larger than in metal-rich samples, especially for the elements of Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, and Co. When examined the relation between planet properties and metallicities of planet-host stars, we have observed that planet-host stars with low-metallicity tend to bear several low-mass planets ($< M_J$) instead of a massive gas-giant planet.
Overabundance of alpha-elements in exoplanet host stars  [PDF]
V. Zh. Adibekyan,N. C. Santos,S. G. Sousa,G. Israelian,E. Delgado Mena,J. I. Gonzalez Hernandez,M. Mayor,C. Lovis,S. Udry
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219564
Abstract: We present the results for a chemical abundance analysis between planet-hosting and stars without planets for 12 refractory elements for a total of 1111 nearby FGK dwarf stars observed within the context of the HARPS GTO programs. Of these stars, 109 are known to harbour high-mass planetary companions and 26 stars are hosting exclusively Neptunians and super-Earths. We found that the [X/Fe] ratios for Mg, Al, Si, Sc, and Ti both for giant and low-mass planet hosts are systematically higher than those of comparison stars at low metallicities ([Fe/H] < from -0.2 to 0.1 dex depending on the element). The most evident discrepancy between planet-hosting and stars without planets is observed for Mg. Our data suggest that the planet incidence is greater among the thick disk population than among the thin disk for mettallicities bellow -0.3 dex. After examining the [alpha/Fe] trends of the planet host and non-host samples we conclude that a certain chemical composition, and not the Galactic birth place of the stars, is the determinating factor for that. The inspection of the Galactic orbital parameters and kinematics of the planet-hosting stars shows that Neptunian hosts tend to belong to the "thicker" disk compared to their high-mass planet-hosting counterparts.We also found that Neptunian hosts follow the distribution of high-alpha stars in the UW vs V velocities space, but they are more enhanced in Mg than high-alpha stars without planetary companions. Our results indicate that some metals other than iron may also have an important contribution to planet formation if the amount of iron is low. These results may provide strong constraints for the models of planet formation, especially for planets with low mass.
Measuring Be depletion in cool stars with exoplanets  [PDF]
Elisa Delgado Mena,Garik Israelian,Jonay I. González Hernández,Nuno C. Santos,Rafael Rebolo
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/728/2/148
Abstract: We present new UVES spectra of a sample of 14 mostly cool unevolved stars with planetary companions with the aim of studying possible differences in Be abundance with respect to stars without detected planets. We determine Be abundances for these stars that show an increase in Be depletion as we move to lower temperatures. We carry out a differential analysis of spectra of analog stars with and without planets to establish a possible difference in Be content. While for hot stars no measurable difference is found in Be, for the only cool (Teff ~ 5000 K) planet host star with several analogs in the sample we find enhanced Be depletion by 0.25 dex. This is a first indication that the extra-depletion of Li in solar-type stars with planets may also happen for Be, but shifted towards lower temperatures (Teff < 5500 K) due to the depth of the convective envelopes. The processes that take place in the formation of planetary systems may affect the mixing of material inside their host stars and hence the abundances of light elements.
Binarity of Transit Host Stars - Implications on Planetary Parameters  [PDF]
S. Daemgen,F. Hormuth,W. Brandner,C. Bergfors,M. Janson,S. Hippler,Th. Henning
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200810988
Abstract: Straight-forward derivation of planetary parameters can only be achieved in transiting planetary systems. However, planetary attributes such as radius and mass strongly depend on stellar host parameters. Discovering a transit host star to be multiple leads to a necessary revision of the derived stellar and planetary parameters. Based on our observations of 14 transiting exoplanet hosts, we derive parameters of the individual components of three transit host stars (WASP-2, TrES-2, and TrES-4) which we detected to be binaries. Two of these have not been known to be multiple before. Parameters of the corresponding exoplanets are revised. High-resolution "Lucky Imaging" with AstraLux at the 2.2m Calar Alto telescope provided near diffraction limited images in i' and z' passbands. These results have been combined with existing planetary data in order to recalibrate planetary attributes. Despite the faintness (delta mag ~ 4) of the discovered stellar companions to TrES-2, TrES-4, and WASP-2, light-curve deduced parameters change by up to more than 1sigma. We discuss a possible relation between binary separation and planetary properties, which - if confirmed - could hint at the influence of binarity on the planet formation process.
Exoplanet hosts reveal lithium depletion: Results from a homogeneous statistical analysis  [PDF]
P. Figueira,J. P. Faria,E. Delgado-Mena,V. Zh. Adibekyan,S. G. Sousa,N. C. Santos,G. Israelian
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201424218
Abstract: Aims. We study the impact of the presence of planets on the lithium abundance of host stars and evaluate the previous claim that planet hosts exhibit lithium depletion when compared to their non-host counterparts. Methods. Using previously published lithium abundances, we remove the confounding effect of the different fundamental stellar parameters by applying a multivariable regression on our dataset. In doing so, we explicitly make an assumption made implicitly by different authors: that lithium abundance depends linearly on fundamental stellar parameters. Using a moderator variable to distinguish stars with planets from those without, we evaluate the existence of an offset in lithium abundances between the two groups. We perform this analysis first for stars that present a clear lithium detection exclusively and include in a second analysis upper lithium measurements. Results. Our analysis shows that under the above-mentioned assumption of linearity, a statistically significant negative offset in lithium abundance between planet hosts and non-hosts is recovered. We concluded that an inflation on the lithium uncertainty estimations by a factor of larger than 5 is required to render the measured offset compatible with zero at less than 3-4 {\sigma} and make it non-significant. We demonstrated that the offset as delivered by our method depends on the different nature of the stars in the two samples. We did so by showing that the offset is reduced down to zero if the planet-host stars are replaced by comparison stars. Moreover, the measured depletion is still significant when one imposes different constraints on the dataset, such as a limit in planetary mass or constrain the host temperature to around solar value. We conclude then that planet-host stars exhibit enhanced lithium depletion when compared with non-host stars. (abridged)
The iron abundance in hot central stars of planetary nebulae derived from IUE spectra  [PDF]
J. L. Deetjen,S. Dreizler,T. Rauch,K. Werner
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: We present the first attempt to determine the iron abundance in hot central stars of planetary nebulae. We perform an analysis with fully metal-line blanketed NLTE model atmospheres for a sample of ten stars (T_eff >= 70.000 K) for which high-resolution UV spectra are available from the IUE archive. In all cases lines of Fe VI or Fe VII can be identified. As a general trend, the iron abundance appears to be subsolar by 0.5-1 dex, however, the S/N of the IUE spectra is not sufficient to exclude a solar abundance in any specific case. Improved spectroscopy by either FUSE or HST is necessary to verify the possibility of a general iron deficiency in central stars. The suspected deficiency may be the result of gravitational settling in the case of three high-gravity objects. For the other stars with low gravity and high luminosity dust fractionation during the previous AGB phase is a conceivable origin.
Chemical abundances of 1111 FGK stars from the HARPS GTO planet search program.Galactic stellar populations and planets  [PDF]
V. Zh. Adibekyan,S. G. Sousa,N. C. Santos,E. Delgado Mena,J. I. Gonzalez Hernandez,G. Israelian,M. Mayor,G. Khachatryan
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219401
Abstract: We performed a uniform and detailed abundance analysis of 12 refractory elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Co, Sc, Mn and V) for a sample of 1111 FGK dwarf stars from the HARPS GTO planet search program. 109 of these stars are known to harbour giant planetary companions and 26 stars are hosting exclusively Neptunians and super-Earths. The main goals of this paper are i) to investigate whether there are any differences between the elemental abundance trends for stars of different stellar populations; ii) to characterise the planet host and non-host samples in term of their [X/H]. The extensive study of this sample, focused on the abundance differences between stars with and without planets will be presented in a parallel paper. The equivalent widths of spectral lines are automatically measured from HARPS spectra with the ARES code. The abundances of the chemical elements are determined using a LTE abundance analysis relative to the Sun, with the 2010 revised version of the spectral synthesis code MOOG and a grid of Kurucz ATLAS9 atmospheres. To separate the Galactic stellar populations we applied both a purely kinematical approach and a chemical method. We found that the chemically separated (based on the Mg, Si, and Ti abundances) thin and thick discs are also chemically disjunct for Al, Sc, Co and Ca. Some bifurcation might also exist for Na, V, Ni, and Mn, but there is no clear boundary of their [X/Fe] ratios. We confirm that an overabundance in giant-planet host stars is clear for all the studied elements.We also confirm that stars hosting only Neptunian-like planets may be easier to detect around stars with similar metallicities as non-planet hosts, although for some elements (particulary alpha-elements) the lower limit of [X/H] are very abrupt.
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