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Simulations of binary coalescence of a neutron star and a black hole  [PDF]
W. Kluzniak,W. H. Lee
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/311151
Abstract: We present the results of Newtonian hydrodynamic simulations of the coalescence of a binary consisting of a black hole with a neutron star. The calculations show that for a wide range of initial conditions the core of the neutron star survives the initial mass transfer episode. We therefore identify black hole-neutron star binaries as the astrophysical production site of low mass neutron stars unstable to explosion. The relevance of the simulations to the theory of gamma-ray bursts is also discussed.
Exploring binary-neutron-star-merger scenario of short-gamma-ray bursts by gravitational-wave observation  [PDF]
Kenta Kiuchi,Yuichiro Sekiguchi,Masaru Shibata,Keisuke Taniguchi
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.141101
Abstract: We elucidate the feature of gravitational waves (GWs) from binary neutron star merger collapsing to a black hole by general relativistic simulation. We show that GW spectrum imprints the coalescence dynamics, formation process of disk, equation of state for neutron stars, total masses, and mass ratio. A formation mechanism of the central engine of short $\gamma$-ray bursts, which are likely to be composed of a black hole and surrounding disk, therefore could be constrained by GW observation.
Gamma-ray bursts and gravitational radiation from black hole-torus systems  [PDF]
Maurice H. P. M. van Putten
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: Cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are probably powered by systems harboring a rotating black hole. These may result from hypernovae or black hole-neutron star coalescence. We identify short/long bursts with hyper- and suspended-accretion states around slowly/rapidly spinning black holes. Baryon poor jets, as input to the observed GRB/afterglow emissions, may result from dissipation in a gap along an open flux-tube on the axis of rotation of the black hole. The torus is expected to radiate a major fraction of the black hole luminosity into gravitational waves, which suggests that long GRBs may be the most powerful LIGO/VIRGO burst sources in the Universe. (Abbreviated)
Gamma-ray binaries: stable mass transfer from neutron star to black hole  [PDF]
Simon Portegies Zwart
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/311522
Abstract: Gamma-ray bursts are characterized by a duration of milliseconds to several minutes in which an enormous amount of radiation is emitted. The origin of these phenomena is still unknown because proposed models fail to explain all the observed features. Our proposed solution to this conundrum is a new class of mass-exchanging binaries in which a neutron star transfers mass to a black hole. According to recent studies binaries which contain a neutron star and a black hole are much more frequent than was previously believed. Mass exchange is driven by the emission of gravitational waves but the redistribution of mass in the binary system prevents coalescence. The phase of mass transfer is surprisingly stable and lasts for several thousands of orbital revolutions (about a minute). With a simple analytic model we demonstrated that this new class of binaries could provide an excellent candidate for the observed phenomena known as gamma-ray bursts.
The Final Fate of Coalescing Binary Neutron Stars: Collapse to a Black Hole?  [PDF]
Frederic A. Rasio
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: Coalescing compact binaries with neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) components are important sources of gravitational waves for the laser-interferometer detectors currently under construction, and may also be sources of gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances. This paper focuses on the final hydrodynamic coalescence and merger of NS--NS binaries, and addresses the question of whether black hole formation is the inevitable final fate of these systems.
Simulations of black hole-neutron star binary coalescence  [PDF]
William H. Lee
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1063/1.1387308
Abstract: We show the results of dynamical simulations of the coalescence of black hole-neutron star binaries. We use a Newtonian Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code, and include the effects of gravitational radiation back reaction with the quadrupole approximation for point masses, and compute the gravitational radiation waveforms. We assume a polytropic equation of state determines the structure of the neutron star in equilibrium, and use an ideal gas law to follow the dynamical evolution. Three main parameters are explored: (i) The distribution of angular momentum in the system in the initial configuration, namely tidally locked systems vs. irrotational binaries; (ii) The stiffness of the equation of state through the value of the adiabatic index Gamma (ranging from Gamma=5/3 to Gamma=3); (iii) The initial mass ratio q=M(NS)/M(BH). We find that it is the value of Gamma that determines how the coalescence takes place, with immediate and complete tidal disruption for Gamma less than 2, while the core of the neutron star survives and stays in orbit around the black hole for Gamma=3. This result is largely independent of the initial mass ratio and spin configuration, and is reflected directly in the gravitational radiation signal. For a wide range of mass ratios, massive accretion disks are formed (M(disk)~0.2 solar masses), with baryon-free regions that could possibly give rise to gamma ray bursts.
Gamma-Ray Bursts and Quantum Cosmic Censorship  [PDF]
T. P. Singh
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1023/A:1026608004050
Abstract: Gamma-ray bursts are believed to result from the coalescence of binary neutron stars. However, the standard proposals for conversion of the gravitational energy to thermal energy have difficulties. We show that if the merger of the two neutron stars results in a naked singularity, instead of a black hole, the ensuing quantum particle creation can provide the requisite thermal energy in a straightforward way. The back-reaction of the created particles can avoid the formation of the naked singularity predicted by the classical theory. Hence cosmic censorship holds in the quantum theory, even if it were to be violated in classical general relativity.
Black Hole - Neutron Star Mergers as Central Engines of Gamma-Ray Bursts  [PDF]
H. -Th. Janka,Th. Eberl,M. Ruffert,C. L. Fryer
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/312397
Abstract: Hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of stellar mass black hole - neutron star binaries (BH/NS) are compared with mergers of binary neutron stars (NS/NS). The simulations are Newtonian, but take into account the emission and backreaction of gravitational waves. The use of a physical nuclear equation of state allows us to include the effects of neutrino emission. For low neutron star to black hole mass ratios the neutron star transfers mass to the black hole during a few cycles of orbital decay and subsequent widening before finally being disrupted, whereas for ratios near unity the neutron star is already distroyed during its first approach. A gas mass between about 0.3 and about 0.7 solar masses is left in an accretion torus around the black hole and radiates neutrinos at a luminosity of several 10^{53} erg/s during an estimated accretion time scale of about 0.1 s. The emitted neutrinos and antineutrinos annihilate into electron-positron pairs with efficiencies of 1-3% percent and rates of up to 2*10^{52} erg/s, thus depositing an energy of up to 10^{51} erg above the poles of the black hole in a region which contains less than 10^{-5} solar masses of baryonic matter. This could allow for relativistic expansion with Lorentz factors around 100 and is sufficient to explain apparent burst luminosities of up to several 10^{53} erg/s for burst durations of approximately 0.1-1 s, if the gamma emission is collimated in two moderately focussed jets in a fraction of about 1/100-1/10 of the sky.
Merger of binary neutron stars to a black hole: Disk mass, short gamma-ray bursts, and quasinormal mode ringing  [PDF]
Masaru Shibata,Keisuke Taniguchi
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.73.064027
Abstract: Three-dimensional simulations for the merger of binary neutron stars (BNSs) are performed in the framework of full general relativity. We pay particular attention to the black hole (BH) formation case and to the resulting mass of the surrounding disk for exploring possibility for formation of the central engine of short-duration gamma-ray bursts. Hybrid equations of state (EOSs) are adopted mimicking realistic, stiff nuclear EOSs, for which the maximum allowed gravitational mass of cold and spherical neutron stars (NSs), M_sph, is larger than 2M_sun. For the simulations, we focus on BNSs of the ADM mass M>2.6M_sun. For M>M_thr, the merger results in prompt formation of a BH irrespective of the mass ratio Q_M with 0.650.01M_sun. Gravitational waves (GWs) are computed in terms of a gauge-invariant wave extraction technique. In the formation of the HMNS, quasiperiodic GWs of frequency (3-3.5kHz) are emitted. The effective amplitude of GWs can be >5x10^{-21} at a distance of 50 Mpc. For the BH formation case, the BH excision technique enables a longterm computation and extraction of ring-down GWs associated with a BH quasinormal mode. It is found that the frequency and amplitude are 6.5-7kHz and 10^{-22} at a distance of 50Mpc for M=2.7-2.9M_sun.
Hydrodynamics of black hole-neutron star coalescence  [PDF]
William H. Lee,Wlodzimierz Kluzniak
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We present a numerical study of the hydrodynamics in the final stages of inspiral in a black hole-neutron star binary, when the separation becomes comparable to the stellar radius. We use a Newtonian three-dimensional Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code, and model the neutron star with a soft (adiabatic index Gamma=5/3) polytropic equation of state and the black hole as a Newtonian point mass which accretes matter via an absorbing boundary at the Schwarzschild radius. Our initial conditions correspond to tidally locked binaries in equilibirium. The dynamical evolution is followed for approximately 23 ms, and in every case for Gamma=5/3 we find that the neutron star is tidally disrupted on a dynamical timescale, forming a dense torus around the black hole that contains a few tenths of a solar mass. A nearly baryon-free axis is present in the system throughout the coalescence, a fireball expanding along that axis would avoid excessive baryon contamination and could give rise to a modestly beamed gamma-ray burst.
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