Abstract:
I discuss the role of spacetime supersymmetry in the interplay between strong/weak coupling duality and target space duality in string theory which arises in string/string duality. This can be seen via the construction of string soliton solutions which in $N=4$ compactifications of heterotic string theory break more than $1/2$ of the spacetime supersymmetries but whose analogs in $N=2$ and $N=1$ compactifications break precisely $1/2$ of the spacetime supersymmetries. As a result, these solutions may be interpreted as stable solitons in the latter two cases, and correspond to Bogomol'nyi-saturated states in their respective spectra.

Abstract:
The interplay between T-duality and supersymmetry in string theory is explored. It is shown that T-duality is always compatible with supersymmetry and simply changes a local realization to a non-local one and vice versa. Non-local realizations become natural using classical parafermions of the underlying conformal field theory. Examples presented include hyper-kahler metrics and the backgrounds for the SU(2) X U(1) and SU(2)/U(1) X U(1) X U(1) exact conformal field theories.

Abstract:
In order to study the discrepancy between the supersymmetry bound and the extremality bound for rotating black holes, the effect of duality transformations on the class of stationary and axially symmetric string backgrounds, called the TNbh, is considerd. It is shown that the Bogomolnyi bound is invariant under those duality transformations that transform the TNbh into itself, meaning that duality does not constrain the angular momentum in such a way as to reconcile the aforementioned bounds. A physical reason for the existence of the discrepancy is given in terms of superradiance.

Abstract:
The status of gaugino condensation in low-energy string theory is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the determination of the efective action below condensation scale in terms of the 2PI and Wilson actions. We illustrate how the different perturbative duality symmetries survive this simple nonperturbative phenomenon, providing evidence for the believe that these are exact nonperturbative symmetries of string theory. Consistency with T duality lifts the moduli degeneracy. The $B_{\mu\nu}-axion$ duality also survives in a nontrivial way in which the degree of freedom corresponding to $B_{\mu\nu}$ is replaced by a massive $H_{\mu\nu\rho}$ field but duality is preserved. S duality may also be implemented in this process. Some general problems of this mechanism are mentioned and the possible nonperturbative scenarios for supersymmetry breaking in string theory are discussed.

Abstract:
World-sheet and spacetime supersymmetries that are manifest in some string backgrounds may not be so in their T-duals. Nevertheless, they always remain symmetries of the underlying conformal field theory. In previous work the mechanism by which T-duality destroys manifest supersymmetry and gives rise to non-local realizations was found. We give the general conditions for a 2-dim N=1 supersymmetric sigma-model to have non-local and hence non-manifest extended supersymmetry. We then examine T-duality as a mechanism of restoring manifest supersymmetry. This happens whenever appropriate combinations of non-local parafermions of the underlying conformal field theory become local due to non-trivial world-sheet effects. We present, in detail, an example arising from the model SU(2)/U(1) X SL(2,R)/U(1) and obtain a new exact 4-dim axionic instanton, that generalizes the SU(2) X U(1) semi-wormhole, and has manifest spacetime as well as N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry. In addition, general necessary conditions for abelian T-duality to preserve manifest N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry are derived and applied to WZW models based on quaternionic groups. We also prove some theorems for sigma-models with non-local N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry.

Abstract:
Four-dimensional string backgrounds with local realizations of N = 4 world-sheet supersymmetry have, in the presence of a rotational Killing symmetry, only one complex structure which is an SO(2) singlet, while the other two form an SO(2) doublet. Although N = 2 world-sheet supersymmetry is always preserved under Abelian T-duality transformations, N = 4 breaks down to N = 2 in the rotational case. A non-local realization of N = 4 supersymmetry emerges, instead, with world-sheet parafermions. For SO(3)-invariant metrics of purely rotational type, like the Taub-NUT and the Atiyah-Hitchin metrics, none of the locally realized extended world-sheet supersymmetries can be preserved under non-Abelian duality.

Abstract:
We study Seiberg duality for N=1 supersymmetric QCD with soft supersymmetry-breaking terms. We generate the soft terms through gauge mediation by coupling two theories related by Seiberg duality to the same supersymmetry-breaking sector. In this way, we know what a supersymmetry-breaking perturbation in one theory maps into in its ``dual''. Assuming a canonical Kahler potential we calculate the soft terms induced in the magnetic theory and find that some of the scalars acquire negative masses squared. If duality is still good for small supersymmetry breaking, this may imply some specific symmetry breaking patterns for supersymmetric QCD with small soft supersymmetry-breaking masses, in the case that its dual theory is weakly coupled in the infrared. In the limit of large supersymmetry breaking, the electric theory becomes ordinary QCD. However, the resulting symmetry breaking in the magnetic theory is incompatible with that expected for QCD.

Abstract:
It is shown that the O(d,d;R) deformations of the superstring vacua and the O(d,d+16;R) deformations of the heterotic string vacua preserve extended worldsheet supersymmetry and, hence, generate superconformal deformations. The transformations of the complex structures are given explicitly and the action of the discrete duality subgroup is discussed. The results are valid when the complex structures are independent of the d coordinates which appear in the transformations. It is shown that generic deformations do not preserve the known superfield formulations of (2,2) extended supersymmetry. The analysis is performed by decomposing the transformations in terms of the metric vielbein and by introducing space-time connections induced due to the non-linear action of the O(d,d;R) and O(d,d+16;R) deformations on the background fields.

Abstract:
Starting with two supersymmetric dual theories, we imagine adding a chiral perturbation that breaks supersymmetry dynamically. At low energy we then get two theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking terms that are generated dynamically. With a canonical Kahler potential, some of the scalars of the "magnetic" theory typically have negative mass-squared, and the vector-like symmetry is broken. Since for large supersymmetry breaking the "electric" theory becomes ordinary QCD, the two theories are then incompatible. For small supersymmetry breaking, if duality still holds, the magnetic theory analysis implies specific patterns of chiral symmetry breaking in supersymmetric QCD with small soft masses.

Abstract:
We study how the supersymmetry algebra copes with gravitational duality. As a playground, we consider a charged Taub-NUT solution of D=4, N=2 supergravity. We find explicitly its Killing spinors, and the projection they obey provides evidence that the dual magnetic momenta necessarily have to appear in the supersymmetry algebra. The existence of such a modification is further supported using an approach based on the Nester form. In the process, we find new expressions for the dual magnetic momenta, including the NUT charge. The same expressions are then rederived using gravitational duality.