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Detection of spin polarized currents in quantum point contacts via transverse electron focusing  [PDF]
A. Reynoso,Gonzalo Usaj,C. A. Balseiro
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.085321
Abstract: It has been predicted recently that an electron beam can be polarized when it flows adiabatically through a quantum point contact in a system with spin-orbit interaction. Here, we show that a simple transverse electron focusing setup can be used to detect such polarized current. It uses the amplitude's asymmetry of the spin-split transverse electron focusing peak to extract information about the electron's spin polarization. On the other hand, and depending on the quantum point contact geometry, including this one-body effect can be important when using the focusing setup to study many-body effects in quantum point contacts.
Magneto-mechanical interplay in spin-polarized point contacts  [PDF]
Maria Stamenova,Sudhakar Sahoo,Cristian G. Sanchez,Tchavdar N. Todorov,Stefano Sanvito
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.73.094439
Abstract: We investigate the interplay between magnetic and structural dynamics in ferromagnetic atomic point contacts. In particular, we look at the effect of the atomic relaxation on the energy barrier for magnetic domain wall migration and, reversely, at the effect of the magnetic state on the mechanical forces and structural relaxation. We observe changes of the barrier height due to the atomic relaxation up to 200%, suggesting a very strong coupling between the structural and the magnetic degrees of freedom. The reverse interplay is weak, i.e. the magnetic state has little effect on the structural relaxation at equilibrium or under non-equilibrium, current-carrying conditions.
Current Driven tri-stable Resistance States in Magnetic Point Contacts  [PDF]
I. K. Yanson,V. V. Fisun,Yu. G. Naidyuk,O. P. Balkashin,L. Yu. Triputen,A. Konovalenko,V. Korenivski
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/21/35/355004
Abstract: Point contacts between normal and ferromagnetic metals are investigated using magneto-resistance and transport spectroscopy measurements combined with micromagnetic simulations. Pronounced hysteresis in the point-contact resistance versus both bias current and external magnetic field are observed. It is found that such hysteretic resistance can exhibit, in addition to bi-stable resistance states found in ordinary spin valves, tri-stable resistance states with a middle resistance level. We interpret these observation in terms of surface spin-valve and spin-vortex states, originating from a substantially modified spin structure at the ferromagnetic interface in contact core. We argue that these surface spin states, subject to a weakened exchange interaction, dominate the effects of spin transfer torques on the nanometer scale.
Current-Driven Microwave Dynamics in Magnetic Point Contacts as a Function of Applied Field Angle  [PDF]
W. H. Rippard,M. R. Pufall,S. Kaka,T. J. Silva,S. E. Russek
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.70.100406
Abstract: We have measured microwave frequency, current-driven magnetization dynamics in point contacts made to Co90Fe10/Cu/ Ni80Fe20 spin valves as a function of applied field strength and angle relative to the film plane. As the field direction is varied from parallel to nearly perpendicular, the device power output increases by roughly two orders of magnitude while the frequencies of the excitations decrease. For intermediate angles the excited frequency does not monotonically vary with applied current and also exhibits abrupt, current-dependent jumps. For certain ranges of current, and applied field strength and direction, the excitation linewidths decrease to a few megahertz, leading to quality factors over 18,000.
Synchronization of spin-torque driven nanooscillators for point contacts on a quasi-1D nanowire: Micromagnetic simulations  [PDF]
Dmitry V. Berkov
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.014406
Abstract: In this paper we present detailed numerical simulation studies on the synchronization of two spin-torque nanooscillators (STNO) in the quasi-1D geometry: magnetization oscillations are induced in a thin NiFe nanostripe by a spin polarized current injected via square-shaped CoFe nanomagnets on the top of this stripe. In a sufficiently large out-of-plane field, a propagating oscillation mode appears in such a system. Due to the absence of the geometrically caused wave decay in 1D systems, this mode is expected to enable a long-distance synchronization between STNOs. Indeed, our simulations predict that synchronization of two STNOs on a nanowire is possible up to the intercontact distance 3 mkm (for the nanowire width 50 nm). However, we have also found several qualitatively new features of the synchronization behaviour for this system, which make the achievement of a stable synchronization in this geometry to a highly non-trivial task. In particular, there exist a minimal distance between the nanocontacts, below which a synchronization of STNOs can not be achieved. Further, when the current value in the first contact is kept constant, the amplitude of synchronized oscillations depends non-monotonously on the current value in the second contact. Finally, for one and the same currents values through the contacts there might exist several synchronized states (with different frequencies), depending on the initial conditions.
Spin dynamics in point contacts to single ferromagnetic films  [PDF]
O. P. Balkashin,V. V. Fisun,I. K. Yanson,L. Yu. Triputen,A. Konovalenko,V. Korenivski
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.092419
Abstract: Excitation of magnons or spin-waves driven by nominally unpolarized transport currents in point contacts of normal and ferromagnetic metals is probed by irradiating the contacts with microwaves. Two characteristic dynamic effects are observed: a rectification of off-resonance microwave current by spin-wave nonlinearities in the point contact conductance, and a resonant stimulation of spin-wave modes in the nano-contact core by the microwave field. These observations provide a direct evidence that the magnetoconductance effects observed are due to GHz spin dynamics at the ferromagnetic interface driven by the spin transfer torque effect of the transport current.
Spin Polarization at Semiconductor Point Contacts in Absence of Magnetic Field  [PDF]
Mikio Eto,Tetsuya Hayashi,Yuji Kurotani
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.74.1934
Abstract: Semiconductor point contacts can be a useful tool for producing spin-polarized currents in the presence of spin-orbit (SO) interaction. Neither magnetic fields nor magnetic materials are required. By numerical studies, we show that (i) the conductance is quantized in units of 2e^2/h unless the SO interaction is too strong, (ii) the current is spin-polarized in the transverse direction, and (iii) a spin polarization of more than 50% can be realized with experimentally accessible values of the SO interaction strength. The spin-polarization ratio is determined by the adiabaticity of the transition between subbands of different spins during the transport through the point contacts.
An improved 2.5 GHz electron pump: single-electron transport through shallow-etched point contacts driven by surface acoustic waves  [PDF]
P. Utko,K. Gloos,J. B. Hansen,P. E. Lindelof
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: We present an experimental study of a 2.5 GHz electron pump based on the quantized acoustoelectric current driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) through a shallow-etched point contact in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. At low temperatures and with an additional counter-propagating SAW beam, up to n = 20 current plateaus at I=nef could be resolved, where n is an integer, e the electron charge, and f the SAW frequency. In the best case the accuracy of the first plateau at 0.40 nA was estimated to be dI/I = +/- 25 ppm over 0.25 mV in gate voltage, which is better than previous results.
Conductance oscillations of a spin-orbit stripe with polarized contacts  [PDF]
M. M. Gelabert,Ll. Serra
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2010-10767-6
Abstract: We investigate the linear conductance of a stripe of spin-orbit interaction in a 2D electron gas; that is, a 2D region of length $\ell$ along the transport direction and infinite in the transverse one in which a spin-orbit interaction of Rashba type is present. Polarization in the contacts is described by means of Zeeman fields. Our model predicts two types of conductance oscillations: Ramsauer oscillations in the minority spin transmission, when both spins can propagate, and Fano oscillations when only one spin propagates. The latter are due to the spin-orbit coupling with quasibound states of the non propagating spin. In the case of polarized contacts in antiparallel configuration Fano-like oscillations of the conductance are still made possible by the spin orbit coupling, even though no spin component is bound by the contacts. To describe these behaviors we propose a simplified model based on an ansatz wave function. In general, we find that the contribution for vanishing transverse momentum dominates and defines the conductance oscillations. Regarding the oscillations with Rashba coupling intensity, our model confirms the spin transistor behavior, but only for high degrees of polarization. Including a position dependent effective mass yields additional oscillations due to the mass jumps at the interfaces.
Spin-Polarized Electron Transport at Ferromagnet/Semiconductor Schottky Contacts  [PDF]
J. D. Albrecht,D. L. Smith
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.68.035340
Abstract: We theoretically investigate electron spin injection and spin-polarization sensitive current detection at Schottky contacts between a ferromagnetic metal and an n-type or p-type semiconductor. We use spin-dependent continuity equations and transport equations at the drift-diffusion level of approximation. Spin-polarized electron current and density in the semiconductor are described for four scenarios corresponding to the injection or the collection of spin polarized electrons at Schottky contacts to n-type or p-type semiconductors. The transport properties of the interface are described by a spin-dependent interface resistance, resulting from an interfacial tunneling region. The spin-dependent interface resistance is crucial for achieving spin injection or spin polarization sensitivity in these configurations. We find that the depletion region resulting from Schottky barrier formation at a metal/semiconductor interface is detrimental to both spin injection and spin detection. However, the depletion region can be tailored using a doping density profile to minimize these deleterious effects. For example, a heavily doped region near the interface, such as a delta-doped layer, can be used to form a sharp potential profile through which electrons tunnel to reduce the effective Schottky energy barrier that determines the magnitude of the depletion region. The model results indicate that efficient spin-injection and spin-polarization detection can be achieved in properly designed structures and can serve as a guide for the structure design.
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