Abstract:
We present an implicit solvent model for ab initio electronic structure calculations which is fully self-consistent and is based on direct solution of the nonhomogeneous Poisson equation. The solute cavity is naturally defined in terms of an isosurface of the electronic density according to the formula of Fattebert and Gygi (J. Comp. Chem. 23, 6 (2002)). While this model depends on only two parameters, we demonstrate that by using appropriate boundary conditions and dispersion-repulsion contributions, solvation energies obtained for an extensive test set including neutral and charged molecules show dramatic improvement compared to existing models. Our approach is implemented in, but not restricted to, a linear-scaling density functional theory (DFT) framework, opening the path for self-consistent implicit solvent DFT calculations on systems of unprecedented size, which we demonstrate with calculations on a 2615-atom protein-ligand complex.

Abstract:
Based on Luttinger's formulation the complex optical conductivity tensor is calculated within the framework of the spin-polarized relativistic screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method for layered systems by means of a contour integration technique. For polar geometry and normal incidence ab-initio Kerr spectra of multilayer systems are then obtained by including via a 2x2 matrix technique all multiple reflections between layers and optical interferences in the layers. Applications to Co|Pt5 and Pt3|Co|Pt5 on the top of a semi-infinite fcc-Pt(111) bulk substrate show good qualitative agreement with the experimental spectra, but differ from those obtained by applying the commonly used two-media approach.

Abstract:
In this paper we report first-principles calculations on the ground-state electronic structure of two infinite one-dimensional systems: (a) a chain of carbon atoms and (b) a chain of alternating boron and nitrogen atoms. Meanfield results were obtained using the restricted Hartree-Fock approach, while the many-body effects were taken into account by second-order M{\o}ller-Plesset perturbation theory and the coupled-cluster approach. The calculations were performed using 6-31$G^{**}$ basis sets, including the d-type polarization functions. Both at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and the correlated levels we find that the infinite carbon chain exhibits bond alternation with alternating single and triple bonds, while the boron-nitrogen chain exhibits equidistant bonds. In addition, we also performed density-functional-theory-based local density approximation (LDA) calculations on the infinite carbon chain using the same basis set. Our LDA results, in contradiction to our HF and correlated results, predict a very small bond alternation. Based upon our LDA results for the carbon chain, which are in agreement with an earlier LDA calculation calculation [ E.J. Bylaska, J.H. Weare, and R. Kawai, Phys. Rev. B 58, R7488 (1998).], we conclude that the LDA significantly underestimates Peierls distortion. This emphasizes that the inclusion of many-particle effects is very important for the correct description of Peierls distortion in one-dimensional systems.

Abstract:
I propose a simple and manageable method that allows for deriving coupling constants of model energy density functionals (EDFs) directly from ab initio calculations performed for finite fermion systems. A proof-of-principle application allows for linking properties of finite nuclei, determined by using the nuclear nonlocal Gogny functional, to the coupling constants of the quasilocal Skyrme functional. The method does not rely on properties of infinite fermion systems but on the ab initio calculations in finite systems. It also allows for quantifying merits of different model EDFs in describing the ab initio results.

Abstract:
An ab-initio description of atomic nuclei that solves the nuclear many-body problem for realistic nuclear forces is expected to possess a high degree of predictive power. In this contribution we treat the main obstacle, namely the short-ranged repulsive and tensor correlations induced by the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction, by means of a unitary correlation operator. This correlator applied to uncorrelated many-body states imprints short-ranged correlations that cannot be described by product states. When applied to an observable it induces the correlations into the operator, creating for example a correlated Hamiltonian suited for Slater determinants. Adding to the correlated realistic interaction a correction for three-body effects, consisting of a momentum-dependent central and spin-orbit two-body potential we obtain an effective interaction that is successfully used for all nuclei up to mass 60. Various results are shown.

Abstract:
We present a wavefunction-based approach to correlated ab initio calculations on crystalline insulators of infinite extent. It uses the representation of the occupied and the unoccupied (virtual) single-particle states of the infinite solid in terms of Wannier functions. Electron correlation effects are evaluated by considering virtual excitations from a small region in and around the reference cell, keeping the electrons of the rest of the infinite crystal frozen at the Hartree-Fock level. The method is applied to study the ground state properties of the LiH crystal, and is shown to yield rapidly convergent results.

Abstract:
Using the Green's function formalism, an ab initio theory for band structures of crystals is derived starting from the Hartree-Fock approximation. It is based on the algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme for the self-energy which is formulated for crystal orbitals (CO-ADC). In this approach, the poles of the Green's function are determined by solving a suitable Hermitian eigenvalue problem. The method is not only applicable to the outer valence and conduction bands, it is also stable for inner valence bands where strong electron correlations are effective. The key to the proposed scheme is to evaluate the self-energy in terms of Wannier orbitals before transforming it to a crystal momentum representation. Exploiting the fact that electron correlations are mainly local, one can truncate the lattice summations by an appropriate configuration selection scheme. This yields a flat configuration space; i.e., its size scales only linearly with the number of atoms per unit cell for large systems and, under certain conditions, the computational effort to determine band structures also scales linearly. As a first application of the new formalism, a lithium fluoride crystal has been chosen. A minimal basis set description is studied, and a satisfactory agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results for the fundamental band gap and the width of the F 2p valence band complex is obtained.

Abstract:
We present a new method for the computation of self-energy corrections in large supercells. It eliminates the explicit summation over unoccupied states, and uses an iterative scheme based on an expansion of the Green's function around a set of reference energies. This improves the scaling of the computational time from the fourth to the third power of the number of atoms for both the inverse dielectric matrix and the self-energy, yielding improved efficiency for 8 or more silicon atoms per unit cell.

Abstract:
We combine {\em ab initio} density functional theory (DFT) structural studies with DFT-based nonequilibrium Green function calculations to investigate how the presence of non-hexagonal rings affects electronic transport in graphitic structures. We find that infinite monolayers, finite-width nanoribbons and nanotubes formed of 5-8 haeckelite with only 5- and 8-membered rings are generally more conductive than their graphene-based counterparts. Presence of haeckelite defect lines in the perfect graphitic structure, a model of grain boundaries in CVD-grown graphene, increases the electronic conductivity and renders it highly anisotropic.

Abstract:
Computer simulation methods, such as Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics, are very powerful computational techniques that provide detailed and essentially exact information on classical many-body problems. With the advent of ab-initio molecular dynamics, where the forces are computed on-the-fly by accurate electronic structure calculations, the scope of either method has been greatly extended. This new approach, which unifies Newton's and Schr\"odinger's equations, allows for complex simulations without relying on any adjustable parameter. This review is intended to outline the basic principles as well as a survey of the field. Beginning with the derivation of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, the Car-Parrinello method and the recently devised efficient and accurate Car-Parrinello-like approach to Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, which unifies best of both schemes are discussed. The predictive power of this novel second-generation Car-Parrinello approach is demonstrated by a series of applications ranging from liquid metals, to semiconductors and water. This development allows for ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations on much larger length and time scales than previously thought feasible.