Abstract:
We present a numerical investigation of the dynamics of one falling oblate ellipsoid particle in a viscous fluid, in three dimensions, using a constrained-force technique \cite{Kai}, \cite{Kaih} and \cite{Esa}. We study the dynamical behavior of the oblate for a typical downward motion and obtain the trajectory, velocity, and orientation of the particle. We analyze the dynamics of the oblate generated when the height of the container, the aspect-ratio, and the dynamical viscosity are changed. Three types of falling motions are established: steady-falling, periodic oscillations and chaotic oscillations. In the periodic regime we find a behavior similar to the case of falling flat strips reported in ref. \cite{Belmonte}. In the chaotic regime the trajectory of the oblate is characterized by a high sensitivity to tiny variations in the initial orientation. The Lyapunov exponent is $\lambda = 0.052 \pm 0.005$. A phase space comparing to the results of ref \cite{Nori}, is shown.

Abstract:
We implemented the replica exchange Monte Carlo technique to produce the equation of state of hard 1:5 aspect-ratio oblate ellipsoids for a wide density range. For this purpose, we considered the analytical approximation of the overlap distance given by Bern and Pechukas and the exact numerical solution given by Perram and Wertheim. For both cases we capture the expected isotropic-nematic transition at low densities and a nematic-crystal transition at larger densities. For the exact case, these transitions occur at the volume fraction 0.341, and in the interval $0.584-0.605$, respectively.

Abstract:
We present an in-depth analysis of the geometrical percolation behavior in the continuum of random assemblies of hard oblate ellipsoids of revolution. Simulations where carried out by considering a broad range of aspect-ratios, from spheres up to aspect-ratio 100 plate-like objects, and with various limiting two particle interaction distances, from 0.05 times the major axis up to 4.0 times the major axis. We confirm the widely reported trend of a consistent lowering of the hard particle critical volume fraction with the increase of the aspect-ratio. Moreover, assimilating the limiting interaction distance to a shell of constant thickness surrounding the ellipsoids, we propose a simple relation based on the total excluded volume of these objects which allows to estimate the critical concentration from a quantity which is quasi-invariant over a large spectrum of limiting interaction distances. Excluded volume and volume quantities are derived explicitly.

Abstract:
This paper describes the experimental simulation and measuring technique of the scattering from oblate water and ice ellipsoids. The measuring results of the backscatter cross-section are given for a series of oblate ellipsoids. The backscatter cross-sections of oblate allipsoids and those of the corresponding sphere of equal valume are calculated using the Extended Boundary Condition Method and Mie formula respectively. The experimental data obtained are reliable. The experimental data are compared with theoretical results. Some useful conclusions are thus drawn.

Abstract:
An analytic solution for Helfrich spontaneous curvature membrane model (H. Naito, M.Okuda and Ou-Yang Zhong-Can, Phys. Rev. E {\bf 48}, 2304 (1993); {\bf 54}, 2816 (1996)), which has a conspicuous feature of representing the circular biconcave shape, is studied. Results show that the solution in fact describes a family of shapes, which can be classified as: i) the flat plane (trivial case), ii) the sphere, iii) the prolate ellipsoid, iv) the capped cylinder, v) the oblate ellipsoid, vi) the circular biconcave shape, vii) the self-intersecting inverted circular biconcave shape, and viii) the self-intersecting nodoidlike cylinder. Among the closed shapes (ii)-(vii), a circular biconcave shape is the one with the minimum of local curvature energy.

Abstract:
Particle packing problems have fascinated people since the dawn of civilization, and continue to intrigue mathematicians and scientists. Resurgent interest has been spurred by the recent proof of Kepler's conjecture: the face-centered cubic lattice provides the densest packing of equal spheres with a packing fraction $\phi\approx0.7405$ \cite{Kepler_Hales}. Here we report on the densest known packings of congruent ellipsoids. The family of new packings are crystal (periodic) arrangements of nearly spherically-shaped ellipsoids, and always surpass the densest lattice packing. A remarkable maximum density of $\phi\approx0.7707$ is achieved for both prolate and oblate ellipsoids with aspect ratios of $\sqrt{3}$ and $1/\sqrt{3}$, respectively, and each ellipsoid has 14 touching neighbors. Present results do not exclude the possibility that even denser crystal packings of ellipsoids could be found, and that a corresponding Kepler-like conjecture could be formulated for ellipsoids.

Abstract:
The effect of rotation is considered to become important when the Rossby number is sufficiently small, as is the case in many geophysical and astrophysical flows. Here we present direct numerical simulations to study the effect of rotation in flows with moderate Rossby numbers (down to Ro~0.1) but at Reynolds numbers large enough to observe the beginning of a turbulent scaling at scales smaller than the energy injection scale. We use coherent forcing at intermediate scales, leaving enough room in the spectral space for an inverse cascade of energy to also develop. We analyze the spectral behavior of the simulations, the shell-to-shell energy transfer, scaling laws, and intermittency, as well as the geometry of the structures in the flow. At late times, the direct transfer of energy at small scales is mediated by interactions with the largest scale in the system, the energy containing eddies with k_perp~1, where "perp" refers to wavevectors perpendicular the axis of rotation. The transfer between modes with wavevector parallel to the rotation is strongly quenched. The inverse cascade of energy at scales larger than the energy injection scale is non-local, and energy is transferred directly from small scales to the largest available scale. Also, as time evolves and the energy piles up at the large scales, the intermittency of the direct cascade of energy is preserved while corrections due to intermittency are found to be the same (within error bars) as in homogeneous turbulence.

Abstract:
It is now well known that a combined analysis of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect and the X-ray emission observations can be used to determine the angular diameter distance to galaxy clusters, from which the Hubble constant is derived. Given that the SZ/X-ray Hubble constant is determined through a geometrical description of clusters, the accuracy to which such distance measurements can be made depends on how well one can describe intrinsic cluster shapes. Using the observed X-ray isophotal axial ratio distribution for a sample of galaxy clusters, we discuss intrinsic cluster shapes and, in particular, if clusters can be described by axisymmetric models, such as oblate and prolate ellipsoids. These models are currently favored when determining the SZ/X-ray Hubble constant. We show that the current observational data on the asphericity of galaxy clusters suggest that clusters are more consistent with a prolate rather than an oblate distribution. We address the possibility that clusters are intrinsically triaxial by viewing triaxial ellipsoids at random angles with the intrinsic axial ratios following an isotropic Gaussian distribution. We discuss implications of our results on current attempts at measuring the Hubble constant using galaxy clusters and suggest that an unbiased estimate of the Hubble constant, not fundamentally limited by projection effects, would eventually be possible with the SZ/X-ray method.

Abstract:
this paper presents an immersed boundary formulation for three-dimensional incompressible flows that uses the momentum equation to calculate the lagrangian force field indirectly imposing the no-slip condition on solid interfaces. in order to test the performance of this methodology the flow past a sphere for reynolds numbers up to 1,000 have been calculated. results are compared with numerical data from other authors and empirical correlations available in the literature. the agreement is found to be very good.

Abstract:
Modeling blood flow in larger vessels using lattice-Boltzmann methods comes with a challenging set of constraints: a complex geometry with walls and inlet/outlets at arbitrary orientations with respect to the lattice, intermediate Reynolds number, and unsteady flow. Simple bounce-back is one of the most commonly used, simplest, and most computationally efficient boundary conditions, but many others have been proposed. We implement three other methods applicable to complex geometries (Guo, Zheng and Shi, Phys Fluids (2002); Bouzdi, Firdaouss and Lallemand, Phys. Fluids (2001); Junk and Yang Phys. Rev. E (2005)) in our open-source application \HemeLB{}. We use these to simulate Poiseuille and Womersley flows in a cylindrical pipe with an arbitrary orientation at physiologically relevant Reynolds (1--300) and Womersley (4--12) numbers and steady flow in a curved pipe at relevant Dean number (100--200) and compare the accuracy to analytical solutions. We find that both the Bouzidi-Firdaouss-Lallemand and Guo-Zheng-Shi methods give second-order convergence in space while simple bounce-back degrades to first order. The BFL method appears to perform better than GZS in unsteady flows and is significantly less computationally expensive. The Junk-Yang method shows poor stability at larger Reynolds number and so cannot be recommended here. The choice of collision operator (lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook vs.\ multiple relaxation time) and velocity set (D3Q15 vs.\ D3Q19 vs.\ D3Q27) does not significantly affect the accuracy in the problems studied.