Abstract:
The influence of a linearized perturbation on stationary inflow solutions in an inviscid and thin accretion disc, has been studied here, and it has been argued, that a perturbative technique would indicate that all possible classes of inflow solutions would be stable. The choice of the driving potential, Newtonian or pseudo-Newtonian, would not particularly affect the arguments which establish the stability of solutions. It has then been surmised that in the matter of the selection of a particular solution, adoption of a non-perturbative technique, based on a more physical criterion, as in the case of the selection of the transonic solution in spherically symmetric accretion, would give a more conclusive indication about the choice of a particular branch of the flow.

Abstract:
Our detailed analytic local disc model (JJ-model) quantifies the interrelation between kinematic properties (e.g. velocity dispersions and asymmetric drift), spatial parameters (scale-lengths and vertical density profiles), and properties of stellar sub-populations (age and abundance distributions). Any consistent radial extension of the disc evolution model should predict specific features in the different distribution functions and in their correlations. Large spectroscopic surveys (SEGUE, RAVE, APOGEE, Gaia-ESO) allow significant constraints on the long-term evolution of the thin disc. We discuss the qualitative difference of correlations (like the alpha-enhancement as function of metallicity) and distribution functions (e.g. in [Mg/H] or [Fe/H]) for the construction of a disc model. In the framework of the JJ-model we build a local chemical enrichment model and show that significant vertical gradients for main sequence and red clump stars are expected in the thin disc. A Jeans analysis of the asymmetric drift provides a link to the radial structure of the disc. The derived metallicity-dependent radial scale-lengths can be combined in the future with the abundance distributions at different Galactocentric distances to construct full disc models. We expect to be able to constrain possible scenarios of inside-out growth of the thin disc and to characterise those populations, which require significant radial migration.

Abstract:
We combine constraints on the galaxy-dark matter connection with structural and dynamical scaling relations to investigate the angular momentum content of disc galaxies. For haloes with masses in the interval 10^{11.3} < M_vir/M_sun < 10^{12.7} we find that the galaxy spin parameters are independent of halo mass with <\lambda'_gal> = (J_gal/M_gal) / (\sqrt{2} R_vir V_vir) = 0.019^{+0.004}_{-0.003} (1sigma). This is significantly lower than for relaxed LCDM haloes, which have an average spin parameter <\lambda'_halo> = 0.031. The average ratio between the specific angular momentum of disk galaxies and their host dark matter haloes is therefore R_j = \lambda'_gal/\lambda'_halo = 0.61^{+0.13}_{-0.10}. This calls into question a standard assumption made in the majority of all (semi-analytical) models for (disc) galaxy formation, namely that R_j=1. Using simple disc formation models we show that it is particularly challenging to understand why R_j is independent of halo mass, while the galaxy formation efficiency (\epsilon_GF, proportional to the ratio of galaxy mass to halo mass) reveals a strong halo mass dependence. We argue that the empirical scaling relations between \epsilon_GF, R_j and halo mass require both feedback (i.e., galactic outflows) and angular momentum transfer from the baryons to the dark matter (i.e., dynamical friction). The efficiency of angular momentum loss need to decrease with increasing halo mass. Such a mass dependence may reflect a bias against forming stable discs in high mass, low spin haloes or a transition from cold-mode accretion in low mass haloes to hot-mode accretion at the massive end. However, current hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation, which should include these processes, seem unable to reproduce the empirical relation between \epsilon_GF and R_j. We conclude that the angular momentum build-up of galactic discs remains poorly understood.

Abstract:
The dynamics of a viscous accretion disc subject to a slowly varying warp of large amplitude is considered. Attention is restricted to discs in which self-gravitation is negligible, and to the generic case in which the resonant wave propagation found in inviscid Keplerian discs does not occur. The equations of fluid dynamics are derived in a coordinate system that follows the principal warping motion of the disc. They are reduced using asymptotic methods for thin discs, and solved to extract the equation governing the warp. In general, this is a wave equation of parabolic type with non-linear dispersion and diffusion, which describes fully non-linear bending waves. This method generalizes the linear theory of Papaloizou & Pringle (1983) to allow for an arbitrary rotation law, and extends it into the non-linear domain, where it connects with a generalized version of the theory of Pringle (1992). The astrophysical implications of this analysis are discussed briefly.

Abstract:
The presence of an imposed external magnetic field may drastically influence the structure of thin accretion discs. The magnetic field energy is here assumed to be in balance with the thermal energy of the accretion flow. The vertical magnetic field, its toroidal component B^tor at the disc surface (due to different rotation rates between disc and its magnetosphere), the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number and the viscosity-alpha are the key parameters of our model. Inside the corotation radius for rather small B^tor the resulting inclination angle i of the magnetic field lines to the disc surface normal can exceed the critical value 30^\circ (required to launch cold jets) even for small magnetic Prandtl numbers of order unity. The self-consistent consideration of both magnetic field and accretion flow demonstrates a weak dependence of the inclination (``dragging'') angle on the magnetic Prandtl number for given surface density but a strong dependence on the toroidal field component at the disc surface. A magnetic disc is thicker than a nonmagnetic one for typical parameter values. The accretion rate can be strongly amplified by large B^tor and small magnetic Prandtl number. On the other hand, for given accretion rate the magnetised disc is less massive than the standard-alpha disc. The surface values of the toroidal magnetic fields which are necessary to induce considerably high values for the inclination angle are much smaller than expected and are of order 10^-3 of the imposed vertical field. As the innermost part of the disc produces the largest B^tor, the largest radial inclination can be expected also there. The idea is therefore supported that the cold jets are launched only in the central disc area.

Abstract:
We discuss Green's-function solutions of the equation for a geometrically thin, axisymmetric Keplerian accretion disc with a viscosity prescription "\nu ~ R^n". The mathematical problem was solved by Lynden-Bell & Pringle (1974) for the special cases with boundary conditions of zero viscous torque and zero mass flow at the disc center. While it has been widely established that the observational appearance of astrophysical discs depend on the physical size of the central object(s), exact time-dependent solutions with boundary conditions imposed at finite radius have not been published for a general value of the power-law index "n". We derive exact Green's-function solutions that satisfy either a zero-torque or a zero-flux condition at a nonzero inner boundary R_{in}>0, for an arbitrary initial surface density profile. Whereas the viscously dissipated power diverges at the disc center for the previously known solutions with R_{in}=0, the new solutions with R_{in}>0 have finite expressions for the disc luminosity that agree, in the limit t=>infinity, with standard expressions for steady-state disc luminosities. The new solutions are applicable to the evolution of the innermost regions of thin accretion discs.

Abstract:
Aims: We study the effects of the cosmological assembly history on the chemical and dynamical properties of the discs of spiral galaxies as a function of radius. Methods: We make use of the simulated Milky-Way mass, fully-cosmological discs, from {\tt RaDES} (Ramses Disc Environment Study). We analyse their assembly history by examining the proximity of satellites to the galactic disc, instead of their merger trees, to better gauge which satellites impact the disc. We present stellar age and metallicity profiles, Age-Metallicity Relation (AMR), Age-Velocity dispersion Relation (AVR), and Stellar Age Distribution (SAD) in several radial bins for the simulated galaxies. Results: Assembly histories can be divided into three different stages: i) a merger dominated phase, when a large number of mergers with mass ratios of $\sim$1:1 take place (lasting $\sim$3.2$\pm$0.4 Gyr on average); ii) a quieter phase, when $\sim$1:10 mergers take place (lasting $\sim$4.4$\pm$2.0 Gyr) - these two phases are able to kinematically heat the disc and produce a disc that is chemically mixed over its entire radial extension; iii) a "secular" phase where the few mergers that take place have mass ratios below 1:100, and which do not affect the disc properties (lasting $\sim$5.5$\pm$2.0 Gyr). Phase ii ends with a final merger event (at time $t_\mathrm{jump}$) marking the onset of important radial differences in the AMR, AVR, and SAD. Conclusions: Inverted AMR trends in the outer parts of discs, for stars younger than $t_\mathrm{jump}$, are found as the combined effect of radial motions and star formation in satellites temporarily located in these outer parts. "U-shaped" stellar age profiles change to an old plateau ($\sim$10 Gyr) in the outer discs for the entire {\tt RaDES} sample. This shape is a consequence of inside-out growth of the disc, radial motions of disc stars ... [abridged]

Abstract:
Gas falling quasi-spherically onto a black hole forms an inner accretion disc if its specific angular momentum $l$ exceeds $\lmin\sim r_gc$ where $r_g$ is the Schwarzschild radius. The standard disc model assumes $l\gg\lmin$. We argue that, in many black-hole sources, accretion flows have angular momenta just above the threshold for disc formation, $l\simgt\lmin$, and assess the accretion mechanism in this regime. In a range $\lmin

Abstract:
A promising extension of general relativity is Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, in which the Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by adding a parity-violating CS term, which couples to gravity via a scalar field. In this work, we consider the interesting, yet relatively unexplored, dynamical formulation of CS modified gravity, where the CS coupling field is treated as a dynamical field, endowed with its own stress-energy tensor and evolution equation. We consider the possibility of observationally testing dynamical CS modified gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly-rotating black holes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard general relativistic Kerr solution. It is shown that the Kerr black hole provide a more efficient engine for the transformation of the energy of the accreting mass into radiation than their slowly-rotating counterparts in CS modified gravity. Specific signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, thus leading to the possibility of directly testing CS modified gravity by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

Abstract:
Long-term evolution of a stellar orbit captured by a massive galactic center via successive interactions with an accretion disc has been examined. An analytical solution describing evolution of the stellar orbital parameters during the initial stage of the capture was found. Our results are applicable to thin Keplerian discs with an arbitrary radial distribution of density and rather general prescription for the star-disc interaction. Temporal evolution is given in the form of quadrature which can be carried out numerically.