Abstract:
This paper describes the open-source code Enzo, which uses block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to provide high spatial and temporal resolution for modeling astrophysical fluid flows. The code is Cartesian, can be run in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions, and supports a wide variety of physics including hydrodynamics, ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics, N-body dynamics (and, more broadly, self-gravity of fluids and particles), primordial gas chemistry, optically-thin radiative cooling of primordial and metal-enriched plasmas (as well as some optically-thick cooling models), radiation transport, cosmological expansion, and models for star formation and feedback in a cosmological context. In addition to explaining the algorithms implemented, we present solutions for a wide range of test problems, demonstrate the code's parallel performance, and discuss the Enzo collaboration's code development methodology.

Abstract:
Implementation details and test cases of a newly developed hydrodynamic code, AMRA, are presented. The numerical scheme exploits the adaptive mesh refinement technique coupled to modern high-resolution schemes which are suitable for relativistic and non-relativistic flows. Various physical processes are incorporated using the operator splitting approach, and include self-gravity, nuclear burning, physical viscosity, implicit and explicit schemes for conductive transport, simplified photoionization, and radiative losses from an optically thin plasma. Several aspects related to the accuracy and stability of the scheme are discussed in the context of hydrodynamic and astrophysical flows.

Abstract:
A new N-body and hydrodynamical code, called RAMSES, is presented. It has been designed to study structure formation in the universe with high spatial resolution. The code is based on Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) technique, with a tree based data structure allowing recursive grid refinements on a cell-by-cell basis. The N-body solver is very similar to the one developed for the ART code (Kravtsov et al. 97), with minor differences in the exact implementation. The hydrodynamical solver is based on a second-order Godunov method, a modern shock-capturing scheme known to compute accurately the thermal history of the fluid component. The accuracy of the code is carefully estimated using various test cases, from pure gas dynamical tests to cosmological ones. The specific refinement strategy used in cosmological simulations is described, and potential spurious effects associated to shock waves propagation in the resulting AMR grid are discussed and found to be negligible. Results obtained in a large N-body and hydrodynamical simulation of structure formation in a low density LCDM universe are finally reported, with 256^3 particles and 4.1 10^7 cells in the AMR grid, reaching a formal resolution of 8192^3. A convergence analysis of different quantities, such as dark matter density power spectrum, gas pressure power spectrum and individual haloes temperature profiles, shows that numerical results are converging down to the actual resolution limit of the code, and are well reproduced by recent analytical predictions in the framework of the halo model.

Abstract:
We present the newly developed code, GAMER (GPU-accelerated Adaptive MEsh Refinement code), which has adopted a novel approach to improve the performance of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) astrophysical simulations by a large factor with the use of the graphic processing unit (GPU). The AMR implementation is based on a hierarchy of grid patches with an oct-tree data structure. We adopt a three-dimensional relaxing TVD scheme for the hydrodynamic solver, and a multi-level relaxation scheme for the Poisson solver. Both solvers have been implemented in GPU, by which hundreds of patches can be advanced in parallel. The computational overhead associated with the data transfer between CPU and GPU is carefully reduced by utilizing the capability of asynchronous memory copies in GPU, and the computing time of the ghost-zone values for each patch is made to diminish by overlapping it with the GPU computations. We demonstrate the accuracy of the code by performing several standard test problems in astrophysics. GAMER is a parallel code that can be run in a multi-GPU cluster system. We measure the performance of the code by performing purely-baryonic cosmological simulations in different hardware implementations, in which detailed timing analyses provide comparison between the computations with and without GPU(s) acceleration. Maximum speed-up factors of 12.19 and 10.47 are demonstrated using 1 GPU with 4096^3 effective resolution and 16 GPUs with 8192^3 effective resolution, respectively.

Abstract:
A new code, named MAP, is written in Fortran language for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculation with the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and Message Passing Interface (MPI) parallelization. There are several optional numerical schemes for computing the MHD part, namely, modified Mac Cormack Scheme (MMC), Lax-Friedrichs scheme (LF) and weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme. All of them are second order, two-step, component-wise schemes for hyperbolic conservative equations. The total variation diminishing (TVD) limiters and approximate Riemann solvers are also equipped. A high resolution can be achieved by the hierarchical block-structured AMR mesh. We use the extended generalized Lagrange multiplier (EGLM) MHD equations to reduce the non-divergence free error produced by the scheme in the magnetic induction equation. The numerical algorithms for the non-ideal terms, e.g., the resistivity and the thermal conduction, are also equipped in the MAP code. The details of the AMR and MPI algorithms are described in the paper.

Abstract:
A description is given of the algorithms implemented in the AstroBEAR adaptive mesh refinement code for ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The code provides several high resolution, shock capturing schemes which are constructed to maintain conserved quantities of the flow in a finite volume sense. Divergence free magnetic field topologies are maintained to machine precision by collating the components of the magnetic field on a cell-interface staggered grid and utilizing the constrained transport approach for integrating the induction equations. The maintenance of magnetic field topologies on adaptive grids is achieved using prolongation and restriction operators which preserve the divergence and curl of the magnetic field across co-located grids of different resolution. The robustness and correctness of the code is demonstrated by comparing the numerical solution of various tests with analytical solutions or previously published numerical solutions obtained by other codes.

Abstract:
We present a high order one-step ADER-WENO finite volume scheme with space-time adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) for the solution of the special relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic equations. By adopting a local discontinuous Galerkin predictor method, a high order one-step time discretization is obtained, with no need for Runge--Kutta sub-steps. This turns out to be particularly advantageous in combination with space-time adaptive mesh refinement, which has been implemented following a "cell-by-cell" approach. As in existing second order AMR methods, also the present higher order AMR algorithm features time-accurate local time stepping (LTS), where grids on different spatial refinement levels are allowed to use different time steps. We also compare two different Riemann solvers for the computation of the numerical fluxes at the cell interfaces. The new scheme has been validated over a sample of numerical test problems in one, two and three spatial dimensions, exploring its ability in resolving the propagation of relativistic hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical waves in different physical regimes. The astrophysical relevance of the new code for the study of the Richtmyer--Meshkov instability is briefly discussed in view of future applications.

Abstract:
A computer code is described for the simulation of gravitational lensing data. The code incorporates adaptive mesh refinement in choosing which rays to shoot based on the requirements of the source size, location and surface brightness distribution or to find critical curves/caustics. A variety of source surface brightness models are implemented to represent galaxies and quasar emission regions. The lensing mass can be represented by point masses (stars), smoothed simulation particles, analytic halo models, pixelized mass maps or any combination of these. The deflection and beam distortions (convergence and shear) are calculated by modified tree algorithm when halos, point masses or particles are used and by FFT when mass maps are used. The combination of these methods allow for a very large dynamical range to be represented in a single simulation. Individual images of galaxies can be represented in a simulation that covers many square degrees. For an individual strongly lensed quasar, source sizes from the size of the quasar's host galaxy (~ 100 kpc) down to microlensing scales (~ 10^-4 pc) can be probed in a self consistent simulation. Descriptions of various tests of the code's accuracy are given.

Abstract:
We solve the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics equations using distributed parallel adaptive mesh refinement. We discuss strong scaling tests of the code, and present evolutions of Michel accretion and a TOV star.

Abstract:
In this paper, the general procedure to solve the General Relativistic Hydrodynamical(GRH) equations with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) is presented. In order to achieve, the GRH equations are written in the conservation form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of general relativistic hydrodynamic equations are done by High Resolution Shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. The Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states are used to solve GRH equations. First, different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations are carried out to verify the second order convergence of the code in 1D, 2D and 3D. Results from uniform and AMR grid are compared. It is found that adaptive grid does a better job when the number of resolution is increased. Second, the general relativistic hydrodynamical equations are tested using two different test problems which are Geodesic flow and Circular motion of particle In order to this, the flux part of GRH equations is coupled with source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time.