Abstract:
Patterned irradiation of cuprate superconductors with columnar defects allows a new generation of experiments which can probe the properties of vortex liquids by forcing them to flow in confined geometries. Such experiments can be used to distinguish experimentally between continuous disorder-driven glass transitions of vortex matter, such as the vortex glass or the Bose glass transition, and nonequilibrium polymer-like glass transitions driven by interaction and entanglement. For continuous glass transitions, an analysis of such experiments that combines an inhomogeneous scaling theory with the hydrodynamic description of viscous flow of vortex liquids can be used to infer the critical behavior. After generalizing vortex hydrodynamics to incorporate currents and field gradients both longitudinal and transverse to the applied field, the critical exponents for all six vortex liquid viscosities are obtained. In particular, the shear viscosity is predicted to diverge as $|T-T_{BG}|^{-\nu z}$ at the Bose glass transition, with $\nu\simeq 1$ and $z\simeq 4.6$ the dynamical critical exponent. The scaling behavior of the ac resistivity is also derived. As concrete examples of flux flow in confined geometries, flow in a channel and in the Corbino disk geometry are discussed in detail. Finally, the implications of scaling for the hydrodynamic description of transport in the dc flux transformer geometry are discussed.

Abstract:
Cosmology provides a unique and very powerful laboratory for testing neutrino physics. Here, I review the current status of cosmological neutrino measurements. Future prospects are also discussed, with particular emphasis on the interplay with experimental neutrino physics. Finally I discuss the possibility of a direct detection of the cosmic neutrino background and its associated anisotropy.

Abstract:
Vortices carrying fractions of a flux quantum are predicted to exist in multiband superconductors, where vortex core can split between multiple band-specific components of the superconducting condensate. Using the two-component Ginzburg-Landau model, we examine such vortex configurations in a two-band superconducting slab in parallel magnetic field. The fractional vortices appear due to the band-selective vortex penetration caused by different thresholds for vortex entry within each band-condensate, and stabilize near the edges of the sample. We show that the resulting fractional vortex configurations leave distinct fingerprints in the static measurements of the magnetization, as well as in ac dynamic measurements of the magnetic susceptibility, both of which can be readily used for the detection of these fascinating vortex states in several existing multiband superconductors.

Abstract:
We suggest a simple explanation of the difference between transverse and longitudinal scaling exponents observed in experiments and simulations. Based on the Vortex filament model and Multifractal conjecture, we calculate both scaling exponents for any n without any fitting parameters and ESS anzatz. The results are in very good agreement with the data of simulations.

Abstract:
The human mind is endowed with innate primordial perceptions such as space, distance, motion, change, flow of time, matter. The field of cognitive science argues that the abstract concepts of mathematics are not Platonic, but are built in the brain from these primordial perceptions, using what are known as conceptual metaphors. Known cognitive mechanisms give rise to the extremely precise and logical language of mathematics. Thus all of the vastness of mathematics, with its beautiful theorems, is human mathematics. It resides in the mind, and is not `out there'. Physics is an experimental science in which results of experiments are described in terms of concrete concepts - these concepts are also built from our primordial perceptions. The goal of theoretical physics is to describe the experimentally observed regularity of the physical world in an unambiguous, precise and logical manner. To do so, the brain resorts to the well-defined abstract concepts which the mind has metaphored from our primordial perceptions. Since both the concrete and the abstract are derived from the primordial, the connection between physics and mathematics is not mysterious, but natural. This connection is established in the human brain, where a small subset of the vast human mathematics is cognitively fitted to describe the regularity of the universe. Theoretical physics should be thought of as a branch of mathematics, whose axioms are motivated by observations of the physical world. We use the example of quantum theory to demonstrate the all too human nature of the physics-mathematics connection: it is at times frail, and imperfect. Our resistance to take this imperfection sufficiently seriously [since no known experiment violates quantum theory] shows the fundamental importance of experiments in physics.

Abstract:
As a model of two thermally excited flux liquids connected by a weak link, we study the effect of a single line defect on vortex filaments oriented parallel to the surface of a thin planar superconductor. When the applied field is tilted relative to the line defect, the physics is described by a nonhermitian Luttinger liquid of interacting quantum bosons in one spatial dimension with a point defect. We analyze this problem using a combination of analytic and numerical density matrix renormalization group methods, uncovering a delicate interplay between enhancement of pinning due to Luttinger liquid effects and depinning due to the tilted magnetic field. Interactions dramatically improve the ability of a single columnar pin to suppress vortex tilt when the Luttinger liquid parameter g is less than or equal to one.

Abstract:
The partition function pertaining to finite--temperature decoding of a (typical) randomly chosen code is known to have three types of behavior, corresponding to three phases in the plane of rate vs. temperature: the {\it ferromagnetic phase}, corresponding to correct decoding, the {\it paramagnetic phase}, of complete disorder, which is dominated by exponentially many incorrect codewords, and the {\it glassy phase} (or the condensed phase), where the system is frozen at minimum energy and dominated by subexponentially many incorrect codewords. We show that the statistical physics associated with the two latter phases are intimately related to random coding exponents. In particular, the exponent associated with the probability of correct decoding at rates above capacity is directly related to the free energy in the glassy phase, and the exponent associated with probability of error (the error exponent) at rates below capacity, is strongly related to the free energy in the paramagnetic phase. In fact, we derive alternative expressions of these exponents in terms of the corresponding free energies, and make an attempt to obtain some insights from these expressions. Finally, as a side result, we also compare the phase diagram associated with a simple finite-temperature universal decoder for discrete memoryless channels, to that of the finite--temperature decoder that is aware of the channel statistics.

Abstract:
We theoretically show that the topology of a non-simply-connected annular atomic Bose-Einstein condensate enforces the inner surface waves to be always excited with outer surface excitations and that the inner surface modes are associated with induced vortex dipoles unlike the surface waves of a simply-connected one with vortex monopoles. Consequently, under stirring to drive an inner surface wave, a peculiar population oscillation between the inner and outer surface is generated regardless of annulus thickness. Moreover, a new vortex nucleation process by stirring is observed that can merge the inner vortex dipoles and outer vortex into a single vortex inside the annulus. The energy spectrum for a rotating annular condensate with a vortex at the center also reveals the distinct connection of the Tkachenko modes of a vortex lattice to its inner surface excitations.

Abstract:
Scientific realism in classical (i.e. pre-quantum) physics has remained compatible with the naive realism of everyday thinking on the whole; whereas it has proven impossible to find any consistent way to visualize the world underlying quantum theory in terms of our pictures in the everyday world. The general conclusion is that in quantum theory naive realism, although necessary at the level of observations, fails at the microscopic level. In this paper I offer a counter view that what fails in quantum theory is naive realism at the level of observations itself.

Abstract:
The existing data appears to provide hints of an underlying high scale theory. These arise from the gauge coupling unification, from the smallness of the neutrino masses, and via a non-vanishing muon anomaly. An overview of high scale models is given with a view to possible tests at the Large Hadron Collider. Specifically we discuss here some generic approaches to deciphering their signatures. We also consider an out of the box possibility of a four generation model where the fourth generation is a mirror generation rather than a sequential generation. Such a scenario can lead to some remarkably distinct signatures at the LHC.