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Infrared Photometry of the Globular Cluster Palomar 6  [PDF]
Jae-Woo Lee,Bruce W. Carney
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/340464
Abstract: We present JHK photometry of Palomar 6. Our photometric measurements range from the RGB-tip to 2 mag below the RHB and our CMDs show that Palomar~6 appears to have a well-defined RHB population. The distance modulus and interstellar reddening of the cluster are estimated by comparing the magnitude and color of Palomar 6 RHB stars with respect to those of 47 Tuc. We obtain (m-M)_0 = 14.28 mag and E(B-V) = 1.30 mag for the cluster and our study suggests that Palomar~6 is clearly located in the Galaxy's central regions. We also discuss the metallicity of the cluster using the slope of the RGB. We obtain [Fe/H] = -1.2 for Palomar~6 and our metallicity estimate is 0.5 - 1.0 dex lower than previous estimates by others.
Detailed Chemical Abundances of Four Stars in the Unusual Globular Cluster, Palomar 1  [PDF]
Charli M. Sakari,Kim A. Venn,Mike Irwin,Wako Aoki,Nobuo Arimoto,Aaron Dotter
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/740/2/106
Abstract: Detailed chemical abundances for twenty one elements are presented for four red giants in the anomalous outer halo globular cluster Palomar 1 ($R_{\rm{GC}} = 17.2$ kpc, $Z=3.6$ kpc) using high-resolution (R=36000) spectra from the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) on the Subaru Telescope. Pal 1 has long been considered unusual because of its low surface brightness, sparse red giant branch, young age, and its possible association with two extragalactic streams of stars---this paper shows that its chemistry further confirms its unusual nature. The mean metallicity of the four stars, $[\rm{Fe/H}] = -0.60 \pm 0.01$, is high for a globular cluster so far from the Galactic center, but is low for a typical open cluster. The [$\alpha$/Fe] ratios, though in agreement with the Galactic stars within the $1\sigma$ errors, agree best with the lower values in dwarf galaxies. No signs of the Na/O anticorrelation are detected in Pal 1, though Na appears to be marginally high in all four stars. Pal 1's neutron capture elements are also unusual: its high [Ba/Y] ratio agrees best with dwarf galaxies, implying an excess of second-peak over first-peak s-process elements, while its [Eu/$\alpha$] and [Ba/Eu] ratios show that Pal 1's contributions from the r-process must have differed in some way from normal Galactic stars. Therefore, Pal 1 is chemically unusual, as well in its other properties. Pal 1 shares some of its unusual abundance characteristics with the young clusters associated with the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy remnant and the intermediate-age LMC clusters, and could be chemically associated with the Canis Majoris overdensity; however it does not seem to be similar to the Monoceros/Galactic Anticenter Stellar Stream.
The Palomar Transient Factory photometric catalog 1.0  [PDF]
E. O. Ofek,R. Laher,J. Surace,D. Levitan,B. Sesar,A. Horesh,N. Law,J. C. van Eyken,S. R. Kulkarni,T. A. Prince,P. Nugent,M. Sullivan,O. Yaron,A. Pickles,M. Agueros,I. Arcavi,L. Bildsten,J. Bloom,S. B. Cenko,A. Gal-Yam,C. Grillmair,G. Helou,M. M. Kasliwal,D. Poznanski,R. Quimby
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1086/666978
Abstract: We construct a photometrically calibrated catalog of non-variable sources from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) observations. The first version of this catalog presented here, the PTF photometric catalog 1.0, contains calibrated R_PTF-filter magnitudes for about 21 million sources brighter than magnitude 19, over an area of about 11233 deg^2. The magnitudes are provided in the PTF photometric system, and the color of a source is required in order to convert these magnitudes into other magnitude systems. We estimate that the magnitudes in this catalog have typical accuracy of about 0.02 mag with respect to magnitudes from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The median repeatability of our catalog's magnitudes for stars between 15 and 16 mag, is about 0.01 mag, and it is better than 0.03 mag for 95% of the sources in this magnitude range. The main goal of this catalog is to provide reference magnitudes for photometric calibration of visible light observations. Subsequent versions of this catalog, which will be published incrementally online, will be extended to a larger sky area and will also include g_PTF-filter magnitudes, as well as variability and proper motion information.
Structure and Dynamics of the Globular Cluster Palomar 13  [PDF]
J. D. Bradford,M. Geha,R. Munoz,F. A. Santana,J. D. Simon,P. Cote,P. B. Stetson,E. Kirby,S. G. Djorgovski
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/167
Abstract: We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and CFHT/MegaCam photometry for the Milky Way globular cluster Palomar 13. We triple the number of spectroscopically confirmed members, including many repeat velocity measurements. Palomar 13 is the only known globular cluster with possible evidence for dark matter, based on a Keck/HIRES 21 star velocity dispersion of sigma=2.2+/-0.4 km/s. We reproduce this measurement, but demonstrate that it is inflated by unresolved binary stars. For our sample of 61 stars, the velocity dispersion is sigma=0.7(+0.6/-0.5) km/s. Combining our DEIMOS data with literature values, our final velocity dispersion is sigma=0.4(+0.4/-0.3) km/s. We determine a spectroscopic metallicity of [Fe/H]=-1.6+/-0.1 dex, placing a 1-sigma upper limit of sigma_[Fe/H]~0.2 dex on any internal metallicity spread. We determine Palomar 13's total luminosity to be M_V=-2.8+/-0.4, making it among the least luminous known globular clusters. The photometric isophotes are regular out to the half-light radius and mildly irregular outside this radius. The outer surface brightness profile slope is shallower than typical globular clusters (eta=-2.8+/-0.3). Thus at large radius, tidal debris is likely affecting the appearance of Palomar 13. Combining our luminosity with the intrinsic velocity dispersion, we find a dynamical mass of of M_1/2=1.3(+2.7/-1.3)x10^3 M_sun and a mass-to-light ratio of M/L_V=2.4(+5.0/-2.4) M_sun/L_sun. Within our measurement errors, the mass-to-light ratio agrees with the theoretical predictions for a single stellar population. We conclude that, while there is some evidence for tidal stripping at large radius, the dynamical mass of Palomar 13 is consistent with its stellar mass and neither significant dark matter, nor extreme tidal heating, is required to explain the cluster dynamics.
The Tidal Tails of the Ultra-Faint Globular Cluster Palomar 1  [PDF]
M. Niederste-Ostholt,V. Belokurov,N. W. Evans,S. Koposov,M. Gieles,M. J. Irwin
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2010.00931.x
Abstract: Using the Optimal Filter Technique applied to Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry, we have found extended tails stretching about 1 degree (or several tens of half-light radii) from either side of the ultra-faint globular cluster Palomar 1. The tails contain roughly as many stars as does the cluster itself. Using deeper Hubble Space Telescope data, we see that the isophotes twist in a chacteristic S-shape on moving outwards from the cluster centre to the tails. We argue that the main mechanism forming the tails may be relaxation driven evaporation and that Pal 1 may have been accreted from a now disrupted dwarf galaxy ~500 Myr ago.
Is Palomar 1 really associated with the Canis Major overdensity?  [PDF]
Ivo Saviane,Lorenzo Monaco,Matteo Correnti,Piercarlo Bonifacio,Doug Geisler
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/eas/1148056
Abstract: It has recently been suggested that the peculiar cluster Pal 1 is associated to the Canis Major dwarf galaxy, which existence is still at the center of a debate. Our first measurement of the cluster's chemical abundance ratios allows us to examine this association and to advance further in the clarification of Pal 1 possible origin.
Astrophysical Origins for the Unusual Chemical Abundance of the Globular Cluster Palomar 1  [PDF]
Ping Niu,Wenyuan Cui,Bo Zhang,Geying Xie
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1086/679635
Abstract: We study the abundances of {\alpha} elements, Fe-peak elements, and neutron-capture elements in Pal 1. We found that the abundances of the SNe Ia and main s-process components of Pal 1 are larger than those of the disk stars and the abundances of the primary component of Pal 1 are smaller than those of the disk stars with similar metallicity. The Fe abundances of Pal 1 and the disk stars mainly originate from the SNe Ia and the primary component, respectively. Although the {\alpha} abundances dominantly produced by the primary process for the disk stars and Pal 1, the contributions of the primary component to Pal 1 are smaller than the corresponding contributions to the disk stars. The Fe-peak elements V and Co mainly originate from the primary and secondary components for the disk stars and Pal 1, but the contributions of the massive stars to Pal 1 are lower than those of the massive stars to the disk stars. The Yabundances mainly originate from the weak r-component for the disk stars. However, the contributions of the main s-components and main r-components to Y are close to those of the weak r-component for Pal 1. The Ba abundances of Pal 1 and the disk stars mainly originate from the main s-component and the main r-component, respectively. Our calculated results imply that the unusual abundances of Pal could be explained by the top-light IMF for Pal 1 progenitor-system.
High Resolution HDS/SUBARU chemical abundances of the young stellar cluster Palomar 1  [PDF]
L. Monaco,I. Saviane,M. Correnti,P. Bonifacio,D. Geisler
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015510
Abstract: Context. Palomar\,1 is a peculiar globular cluster (GC). It is the youngest Galactic GC and it has been tentatively associated to several of the substructures recently discovered in the Milky Way (MW), including the Canis Major (CMa) overdensity and the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure (GASS). Aims. In order to provide further insights into its origin, we present the first high resolution chemical abundance analysis for one red giant in Pal\,1. Methods. We obtained high resolution (R=30000) spectra for one red giant star in Pal\,1 using the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted at the SUBARU telescope. We used ATLAS-9 model atmospheres coupled with the SYNTHE and WIDTH calculation codes to derive chemical abundances from the measured line equivalent widths of 18 among $\alpha$, Iron-peak, light and heavy elements. Results. The Palomar~1 chemical pattern is broadly compatible to that of the MW open clusters population and similar to disk stars. It is, instead, remarkably different from that of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Conclusions. If Pal\,1 association with either CMa or GASS will be confirmed, this will imply that these systems had a chemical evolution similar to that of the Galactic disk.
The Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae Discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory  [PDF]
Y. -C. Pan,M. Sullivan,K. Maguire,I. M. Hook,P. E. Nugent,D. A. Howell,I. Arcavi,J. Botyanszki,S. B. Cenko,J. DeRose,H. K. Fakhouri,A. Gal-Yam,E. Hsiao,S. R. Kulkarni,R. R. Laher,C. Lidman,J. Nordin,E. S. Walker,D. Xu
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2287
Abstract: We present spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of 82 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We determine star-formation rates, gas-phase/stellar metallicities, and stellar masses and ages of these objects. As expected, strong correlations between the SN Ia light-curve width (stretch) and the host age/mass/metallicity are found: fainter, faster-declining events tend to be hosted by older/massive/metal-rich galaxies. There is some evidence that redder SNe Ia explode in higher metallicity galaxies, but we found no relation between the SN colour and host galaxy extinction based on the Balmer decrement, suggesting that the colour variation of these SNe does not primarily arise from this source. SNe Ia in higher-mass/metallicity galaxies also appear brighter after stretch/colour corrections than their counterparts in lower mass hosts, and the stronger correlation is with gas-phase metallicity suggesting this may be the more important variable. We also compared the host stellar mass distribution to that in galaxy targeted SN surveys and the high-redshift untargeted Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). SNLS has many more low mass galaxies, while the targeted searches have fewer. This can be explained by an evolution in the galaxy stellar mass function, coupled with a SN delay-time distribution proportional to $t^{-1}$. Finally, we found no significant difference in the mass--metallicity relation of our SN Ia hosts compared to field galaxies, suggesting any metallicity effect on the SN Ia rate is small.
Ages for Globular Clusters in the Outer Galactic Halo: The Second Parameter Clusters Palomar~3, Palomar~4 and Eridanus  [PDF]
Peter B. Stetson,Michael Bolte,William E. Harris,James E. Hesser,Sidney van den Bergh,Don A. VandenBerg,Roger A. Bell,Jennifer A. Johnson,Howard E. Bond,Laura K. Fullton,Gregory G. Fahlman,Harvey B. Richer
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/300670
Abstract: We have used the WFPC2 camera on the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain photometry of the outer-halo globular clusters Palomar 3, Palomar 4, and Eridanus. These three are classic examples of the "second parameter" anomaly because of their red horizontal-branch morphologies in combination with their low-to-intermediate metallicities. Our color-magnitude diagrams in (V, V-I) reach $V_{lim} \simeq 27.0$, clearly delineating the subgiant and turnoff regions and about three magnitudes of the unevolved main sequences. The slopes and dereddened colors of the giant branches are consistent with published [Fe/H] estimates that rank the clusters (Pal 3, Eridanus, Pal 4) in order of increasing metallicity, with all three falling near or between the abundance values of the classic nearby halo clusters M3 and M5. Differential fits of their color-magnitude diagrams are made to each other and to M3 and M5 for relative age determinations. We find that the three outer-halo cluster CMDs differ from the nearby clusters in a way that is consistent with their being younger by $\sim 1.5 - 2 $Gyr, if we have correctly estimated the clusters' chemical-abundance ratios. Conversely, the inferred age difference could be smaller ($\ltsim 1 $Gyr) if either [Fe/H] or [$\alpha$/Fe] for the outer-halo clusters is significantly lower than we have assumed. Possible age spreads of order 1$ $Gyr among both the nearby and outer-halo clusters may also be present.
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