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Interacting electrons on trilayer honeycomb lattices  [PDF]
Michael M. Scherer,Stefan Uebelacker,Daniel D. Scherer,Carsten Honerkamp
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.155415
Abstract: Few-layer graphene systems come in various stacking orders. Considering tight-binding models for electrons on stacked honeycomb layers, this gives rise to a variety of low-energy band structures near the charge neutrality point. Depending on the stacking order these band structures enhance or reduce the role of electron-electron interactions. Here, we investigate the instabilities of interacting electrons on honeycomb multilayers with a focus on trilayers with ABA and ABC stackings theoretically by means of the functional renormalization group. We find different types of competing instabilities and identify the leading ordering tendencies in the different regions of the phase diagram for a range of local and non-local short-ranged interactions. The dominant instabilities turn out to be toward an antiferromagnetic spin-density wave (SDW), a charge density wave and toward quantum spin Hall (QSH) order. Ab-initio values for the interaction parameters put the systems at the border between SDW and QSH regimes. Furthermore, we discuss the energy scales for the interaction-induced gaps of this model study and put them into context with the scales for single-layer and Bernal-stacked bilayer honeycomb lattices. This yields a comprehensive picture of the possible interaction-induced ground states of few-layer graphene.
An Accelerating Divergence?  [cached]
Jack Goldstone
The Canadian Journal of Sociology , 2011,
Abstract: Comment
Boltzmann approach to the spin Hall effect revisited and electric field modified collision integrals  [PDF]
Janik Kailasvuori
Statistics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1742-5468/2009/08/P08004
Abstract: The intrinsic contribution to the spin Hall effect in a 2DEG with non-magnetic impurities is studied in a quantum Boltzmann approach. It is shown that if the steady state response is perturbative in the spin-orbit coupling parameter $\lambda$, then the precession term--vital for Dyakonov-Perel relaxation and the key to the spin Hall effect in previous similar Boltzmann studies--must be left out to first order in spin-orbit coupling. In such a case one would have that to lowest order in the parameters electric field, spin-orbit coupling, impurity strength and impurity concentration there is no intrinsic contribution to the spin Hall effect, not only for a Rashba coupling but for a general spin-orbit coupling. To cover all possible lowest order terms we consider also electric field induced corrections to the collision integral in the Keldysh formalism. However, these corrections turn out to be of second order in $\lambda$. For comparison we derive some familiar results in the case when the response is not assumed to be perturbative in $\lambda$. We also include a detailed discussion of why a relaxation time approximation of the collision integral fails. Finally we make a comment on pseudospin currents in bilayer graphene.
Dynamical Mechanism of Two-Dimensional Plasmon Launching by Swift Electrons  [PDF]
Xiao Lin,Xihang Shi,Fei Gao,Ido Kaminer,Zhaoju Yang,Zhen Gao,Hrvoje Buljan,John D. Joannopoulos,Marin Solja?i?,Hongsheng Chen,Baile Zhang
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Launching of surface plasmons by swift electrons has long been utilized to investigate plasmonic properties of ultrathin, or two-dimensional (2D), electron systems, including graphene plasmons recently. However, spatio-temporal dynamics of this process has never been clearly revealed. This is because the impact of an electron will generate not only plasmons, but also photons, demanding both space and time. Here we address this issue within the framework of classical electromagnetics by showing the dynamical process of 2D plasmon launching by swift electrons on graphene. The launching of 2D plasmons on graphene is not immediate, but is delayed after a hydrodynamic splashing-like process, which occurs during the formation time of transition radiation caused by the electron's impact. This newly revealed process also implies that all previous estimates on the yields of graphene plasmons in electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy have been overestimated.
Atomically thin spherical shell-shaped superscatterers based on Bohr model  [PDF]
Rujiang Li,Xiao Lin,Shisheng Lin,Xu Liu,Hongsheng Chen
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/26/43/435201
Abstract: Graphene monolayers can be used for atomically thin three-dimensional shell-shaped superscatterer designs. Due to the excitation of the first-order resonance of transverse magnetic (TM) graphene plasmons, the scattering cross section of the bare subwavelength dielectric particle is enhanced significantly by five orders of magnitude. The superscattering phenomenon can be intuitively understood and interpreted with Bohr model. Besides, based on the analysis of Bohr model, it is shown that contrary to the TM case, superscattering is hard to occur by exciting the resonance of transverse electric (TE) graphene plasmons due to their poor field confinements.
Magnetic quantization in multilayer graphenes  [PDF]
Chiun-Yan Lin,Jhao-Ying Wu,Yih-Jon Ou,Yu-Huang Chiu,Ming-Fa Lin
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Essential properties of multilayer graphenes are diversified by the number of layers and the stacking configurations. For an $N$-layer system, Landau levels are divided into $N$ groups, with each identified by a dominant sublattice associated with the stacking configuration. We focus on the main characteristics of Landau levels, including the degeneracy, wave functions, quantum numbers, onset energies, field-dependent energy spectra, semiconductor-metal transitions, and crossing patterns, which are reflected in the magneto-optical spectroscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, and quantum transport experiments. The Landau levels in AA-stacked graphene are responsible for multiple Dirac cones, while in AB-stacked graphene the Dirac properties depend on the number of graphene layers, and in ABC-stacked graphene the low-lying levels are related to surface states. The Landau-level mixing leads to anticrossings patterns in energy spectra, which are seen for intergroup Landau levels in AB-stacked graphene, while in particular, a formation of both intergroup and intragroup anticrossings is observed in ABC-stacked graphene. The aforementioned magneto-electronic properties lead to diverse optical spectra, plasma spectra, and transport properties when the stacking order and the number of layers are varied. The calculations are in agreement with optical and transport experiments, and novel features that have not yet been verified experimentally are presented.
Plasmonic Modes in Thin Films: Quo Vadis?  [PDF]
Antonio Politano
Frontiers in Materials , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fmats.2014.00009
Abstract: Herein, we discuss the status and the prospect of plasmonic modes in thin films. Plasmons are collective longitudinal modes of charge fluctuation in metal samples excited by an external electric field. Surface plasmons (SPs) are waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor with applications in magneto-optic data storage, optics, microscopy, and catalysis. In thin films, the electronic response is influenced by electron quantum confinement. Confined electrons modify the dynamical screening processes at the film/substrate interface by introducing novel properties with potential applications and, moreover, they affect both the dispersion relation of SP frequency and the damping processes of the SP. Recent calculations indicate the emergence of acoustic surface plasmons (ASPs) in Ag thin films exhibiting quantum well states and in graphene films. The slope of the dispersion of ASP decreases with film thickness. We also discuss open issues in research on plasmonic modes in graphene/metal interfaces.
Multi-Layered Plasmonic Covers for Comb-Like Scattering Response and Optical Tagging  [PDF]
Francesco Monticone,Christos Argyropoulos,Andrea Alu
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.113901
Abstract: We discuss the potential of multilayered plasmonic particles to tailor the optical scattering response. The interplay of plasmons localized in thin stacked shells realizes peculiar degenerate cloaking and resonant states occurring at arbitrarily close frequencies. These concepts are applied to realize ultrasharp comb-like scattering responses and synthesize staggered, ideally strong super-scattering states closely coupled to invisible states. We demonstrate robustness to material losses and to variations in the background medium, properties that make these structures ideal for optical tagging.
Accessing phonon polaritons in hyperbolic crystals by ARPES  [PDF]
Andrea Tomadin,Alessandro Principi,Justin C. W. Song,Leonid S. Levitov,Marco Polini
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.087401
Abstract: Recently studied hyperbolic materials host unique phonon-polariton (PP) modes. The ultra-short wavelengths of these modes, which can be much smaller than those of conventional exciton-polaritons, are of high interest for extreme sub-diffraction nanophotonics schemes. Polar hyperbolic materials such as hexagonal boron nitride can be used to realize strong long-range coupling between PP modes and extraneous charge degrees of freedom. The latter, in turn, can be used to control and probe PP modes. Of special interest is coupling between PP modes and plasmons in an adjacent graphene sheet, which opens the door to accessing PP modes by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). A rich structure in the graphene ARPES spectrum due to PP modes is predicted, providing a new probe of PP modes and their coupling to graphene plasmons.
Collective excitations on a surface of topological insulator  [PDF]
D. K. Efimkin,Yu. E. Lozovik,A. A. Sokolik
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-7-163
Abstract: We study collective excitations in a helical electron liquid on a surface of three-dimensional topological insulator. Electron in helical liquid obeys Dirac-like equation for massless particless and direction of its spin is strictly determined by its momentum. Due to this spin-momentum locking, collective excitations in the system manifest themselves as coupled charge- and spin-density waves. We develop quantum field-theoretical description of spin-plasmons in helical liquid and study their properties and internal structure. Value of spin polarization arising in the system with excited spin-plasmons is calculated. We also consider the scattering of spin-plasmons on magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities and external potentials, and show that the scattering occurs mainly into two side lobes. Analogies with Dirac electron gas in graphene are discussed.
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