Abstract:
We characterize the topological insulator Bi$_2$Se$_3$ using time- and angle- resolved photoemission spectroscopy. By employing two-photon photoemission, a complete picture of the unoccupied electronic structure from the Fermi level up to the vacuum level is obtained. We demonstrate that the unoccupied states host a second, Dirac surface state which can be resonantly excited by 1.5 eV photons. We then study the ultrafast relaxation processes following optical excitation. We find that they culminate in a persistent non-equilibrium population of the first Dirac surface state, which is maintained by a meta-stable population of the bulk conduction band. Finally, we perform a temperature-dependent study of the electron-phonon scattering processes in the conduction band, and find the unexpected result that their rates decrease with increasing sample temperature. We develop a model of phonon emission and absorption from a population of electrons, and show that this counter-intuitive trend is the natural consequence of fundamental electron-phonon scattering processes. This analysis serves as an important reminder that the decay rates extracted by time-resolved photoemission are not in general equal to single electron scattering rates, but include contributions from filling and emptying processes from a continuum of states.

Abstract:
In this letter we report measurements of the coupling between Dirac fermion quasiparticles (DFQs) and phonons on the (001) surface of the strong topological insulator Bi2Se3. While most contemporary investigations of this coupling have involved examining the temperature dependence of the DFQ self-energy via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements, we employ inelastic helium atom scattering to explore, for the first time, this coupling from the phonon perspective. Using a Hilbert transform, we are able to obtain the imaginary part of the phonon self-energy associated with a dispersive surface phonon branch identified in our previous work [1] as having strong interactions with the DFQs. From this imaginary part of the self-energy we obtain a branch-specific electron-phonon coupling constant of 0.43, which is stronger than the values reported form the ARPES measurements.

Abstract:
Recently there has been an accumulation of experimental evidence in the high temperature superconductors suggesting the relevance of electron-phonon coupling in these materials. These findings challenge some well-held beliefs of what electron-phonon interactions can and cannot do. In this article we review evidence primarily from angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) measurements which point out the importance of electronic coupling to certain phonon modes in the cuprates.

Abstract:
Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is used for a detailed study of the electronic structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. Nominally stoichiometric and calcium-doped samples were investigated. The pristine surface shows the topological surface state in the bulk band gap. As time passes, the Dirac point moves to higher binding energies, indicating an increasingly strong downward bending of the bands near the surface. This time-dependent band bending is related to a contamination of the surface and can be accelerated by intentionally exposing the surface to carbon monoxide and other species. For a sufficiently strong band bending, additional states appear at the Fermi level. These are interpreted as quantised conduction band states. For large band bendings, these states are found to undergo a strong Rashba splitting. The formation of quantum well states is also observed for the valence band states. Different interpretations of similar data are also discussed.

Abstract:
This treatise reviews latest results obtained from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on cuprate superconductors, with a special focus on the electron-phonon interaction. What has emerged is rich information about the anomalous electron-phonon interaction well beyond the traditional views of the subject. It exhibits strong doping, momentum and phonon symmetry dependence, and shows complex interplay with the strong electron-electron interaction in these materials.

Abstract:
Based on results from femtosecond time-resolved photoemission, we compare three different methods for determination of the electron-phonon coupling constant {\lambda} in Eu and Ba-based 122 FeAs compounds. We find good agreement between all three methods, which reveal a small {\lambda} < 0.2. This makes simple electron-phonon mediated superconductivity unlikely in these compounds.

Abstract:
Gapless surface states on topological insulators are protected from elastic scattering on non-magnetic impurities which makes them promising candidates for low-power electronic applications. However, for wide-spread applications, these states should have to remain coherent at ambient temperatures. Here, we studied temperature dependence of the electronic structure and the scattering rates on the surface of a model topological insulator, Bi$_2$Se$_3$, by high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We found an extremely weak broadening of the topological surface state with temperature and no anomalies in the state's dispersion, indicating exceptionally weak electron-phonon coupling. Our results demonstrate that the topological surface state is protected not only from elastic scattering on impurities, but also from scattering on low-energy phonons, suggesting that topological insulators could serve as a basis for room temperature electronic devices.

Abstract:
The electron-phonon coupling in potassium-doped graphene on Ir(111) is studied via the renormalization of the pi* band near the Fermi level, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The renormalization is found to be fairly weak and almost isotropic, with a mass enhancement parameter of lambda= 0.28(6) for both the K-M and the K-G direction. These results are found to agree well with recent first principles calculations.

Abstract:
We have studied the O 2p valence-band structure of Nb-doped SrTiO3, in which a dilute concentration of electrons are doped into the d0 band insulator, by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements. We found that ARPES spectra at the valence band maxima at the M [k = (pi/a, pi/a, 0)]and R [k = (pi/a, pi/a, pi/a)] points start from ~ 3.3 eV below the Fermi level (EF), consistent with the indirect band gap of 3.3 eV and the EF position at the bottom of the conduction band. The peak position of the ARPES spectra were, however, shifted toward higher binding energies by ~ 500 meV from the 3.3 eV threshold. Because the bands at M and R have pure O 2p character, we attribute this ~ 500 meV shift to strong coupling of the oxygen p hole with optical phonons in analogy with the peak shifts observed for d-electron photoemission spectra in various transition-metal oxides.

Abstract:
Lattice contribution to the electronic self-energy in complex correlated oxides is a fascinating subject that has lately stimulated lively discussions. Expectations of electron-phonon self-energy effects for simpler materials, such as Pd and Al, have resulted in several misconceptions in strongly correlated oxides. Here we analyze a number of arguments claiming that phonons cannot be the origin of certain self-energy effects seen in high-$T_c$ cuprate superconductors via angle resolved photoemission experiments (ARPES), including the temperature dependence, doping dependence of the renormalization effects, the inter-band scattering in the bilayer systems, and impurity substitution. We show that in light of experimental evidences and detailed simulations, these arguments are not well founded.