Abstract:
Kelly and Leff demonstrated and discussed formal and conceptual similarities between basic thermodynamic formulas for the classical ideal gas and black body photon gas. Leff pointed out that thermodynamic formulas for the photon gas cannot be deduced completely by thermodynamic methods since these formulas hold two characteristic parameters, {\it r} and {\it b}, whose accurate values can be obtained exclusively by accurate methods of the quantum statistics (by explicit use of the Planck's or Bose-Einstein distribution). In this work we prove that the complete quantum thermodynamics of the black body photon gas can be done by simple, thermodynamic (non-statistical) methods. We prove that both mentioned parameters and corresponding variables (photons number and pressure) can be obtained very simply and practically exactly (with relative error about few percent), by non-statistical (without any use of the Planck's or Bose-Einstein distribution), quantum thermodynamic methods. Corner-stone of these methods represents a quantum thermodynamic stability condition that is, in some degree, very similar to quantum stability condition in the Bohr quantum atomic theory (de Broglie's interpretation of the Bohr quantization postulate). Finally, we discuss conceptual similarities between black body photon gas entropy and Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy.

Abstract:
A short introduction on quantum thermodynamics is given and three new topics are discussed: 1) Maximal work extraction from a finite quantum system. The thermodynamic prediction fails and a new, general result is derived, the ``ergotropy''. 2) In work extraction from two-temperature setups, the presence of correlations can push the effective efficiency beyond the Carnot bound. 3) In the presence of level crossing, non-slow changes may be more optimal than slow ones.

Abstract:
In a recent paper the first author established the uniqueness of photon spheres, suitably defined, in static vacuum asymptotically flat spacetimes by adapting Israel's proof of static black hole uniqueness. In this note we establish uniqueness of photon spheres by adapting the argument of Bunting and Masood-ul-Alam, which then allows certain assumptions to be relaxed. In particular, multiple photon spheres are allowed a priori. As a consequence of our result, we can rule out the existence of static configurations involving multiple "very compact" bodies and black holes.

Abstract:
We complete the existing literature on the structure and stability of polytropic gas spheres reported in the classical monograph of Chandrasekhar (1942). For isolated polytropes with index $1

Abstract:
We study covariant differential calculus on the quantum spheres S_q^2N-1. Two classification results for covariant first order differential calculi are proved. As an important step towards a description of the noncommutative geometry of the quantum spheres, a framework of covariant differential calculus is established, including a particular first order calculus obtained by factorization, higher order calculi and a symmetry concept.

Abstract:
Doubly special relativity (DSR), with both an invariant velocity and an invariant length scale, elegantly preserves the principle of relativity between moving observers, and appears as a promising candidate of the quantum theory of gravity. We study the modifications of photon gas thermodynamics in the framework of DSR with an invariant length $|\lambda|$, after properly taking into account the effects of modified dispersion relation, upper bounded energy-momentum space, and deformed integration measure. We show that with a positive $\lambda$, the grand partition function, the energy density, the specific heat, the entropy, and the pressure are smaller than those of special relativity (SR), while the velocity of photons and the ratio of pressure to energy are larger. In contrast, with a negative $\lambda$, the quantum gravity effects show up in the opposite direction. However, these effects only manifest themselves significantly when the temperature is larger than $10^{-3} E_{\rm P}$. Thus, DSR can have considerable influence on the early universe in cosmological study.

Abstract:
We introduce and study two new examples of noncommutative spheres: the half-liberated sphere, and the free sphere. Together with the usual sphere, these two spheres have the property that the corresponding quantum isometry group is "easy", in the representation theory sense. We present as well some general comments on the axiomatization problem, and on the "untwisted" and "non-easy" case.

Abstract:
In a recent paper, the authors established the uniqueness of photon spheres in static vacuum asymptotically flat spacetimes by adapting Bunting and Masood-ul-Alam's proof of static vacuum black hole uniqueness. Here, we establish uniqueness of suitably defined sub-extremal photon spheres in static electro-vacuum asymptotically flat spacetimes by adapting the argument of Masood-ul-Alam. As a consequence of our result, we can rule out the existence of electrostatic configurations involving multiple "very compact" electrically charged bodies and sub-extremal black holes.

Abstract:
We investigate the thermodynamics of complexation of functionalized charged nano-spheres with viral proteins. The physics of this problem is governed by electrostatic interaction between the proteins and the nano-sphere cores (screened by salt ions), but also by configurational degrees of freedom of the charged protein N-tails. We approach the problem by constructing an appropriate complexation free energy functional. On the basis of both numerical and analytical studies of this functional we construct the phase diagram for the assembly which contains the information on the assembled structures that appear in the thermodynamical equilibrium, depending on the size and surface charge density of the nano-sphere cores. We show that both the nano-sphere core charge as well as its radius determine the size of the capsid that forms around the core.