Abstract:
It was recently found that cascading failures can cause the abrupt breakdown of a system of interdependent networks. Using the percolation method developed for single clustered networks by Newman [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 103}, 058701 (2009)], we develop an analytical method for studying how clustering within the networks of a system of interdependent networks affects the system's robustness. We find that clustering significantly increases the vulnerability of the system, which is represented by the increased value of the percolation threshold $p_c$ in interdependent networks.

Abstract:
It is well-known that the synchronization of diffusively-coupled systems on networks strongly depends on the network topology. In particular, the so-called algebraic connectivity $\mu_{N-1}$, or the smallest non-zero eigenvalue of the discrete Laplacian operator plays a crucial role on synchronization, graph partitioning, and network robustness. In our study, synchronization is placed in the general context of networks-of-networks, where single network models are replaced by a more realistic hierarchy of interdependent networks. The present work shows, analytically and numerically, how the algebraic connectivity experiences sharp transitions after the addition of sufficient links among interdependent networks.

Abstract:
The function of a real network depends not only on the reliability of its own components, but is affected also by the simultaneous operation of other real networks coupled with it. Robustness of systems composed of interdependent network layers has been extensively studied in recent years. However, the theoretical frameworks developed so far apply only to special models in the limit of infinite sizes. These methods are therefore of little help in practical contexts, given that real interconnected networks have finite size and their structures are generally not compatible with those of graph toy models. Here, we introduce a theoretical method that takes as inputs the adjacency matrices of the layers to draw the entire phase diagram for the interconnected network, without the need of actually simulating any percolation process. We demonstrate that percolation transitions in arbitrary interdependent networks can be understood by decomposing these system into uncoupled graphs: the intersection among the layers, and the remainders of the layers. When the intersection dominates the remainders, an interconnected network undergoes a continuous percolation transition. Conversely, if the intersection is dominated by the contribution of the remainders, the transition becomes abrupt even in systems of finite size. We provide examples of real systems that have developed interdependent networks sharing a core of "high quality" edges to prevent catastrophic failures.

Abstract:
Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy of nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery $\gamma$, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction $1-p$ of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane $\gamma-p$ of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot avoid the system collapse.

Abstract:
We investigate the abrupt breakdown behavior of coupled distribution grids under load growth. This scenario mimics the ever-increasing customer demand and the foreseen introduction of energy hubs interconnecting the different energy vectors. We extend an analytical model of cascading behavior due to line overloads to the case of interdependent networks and find evidence of first order transitions due to the long-range nature of the flows. Our results indicate that the foreseen increase in the couplings between the grids has two competing effects: on the one hand, it increases the safety region where grids can operate without withstanding systemic failures; on the other hand, it increases the possibility of a joint systems' failure.

Abstract:
Modern world builds on the resilience of interdependent infrastructures characterized as complex networks. Recently, a framework for analysis of interdependent networks has been developed to explain the mechanism of resilience in interdependent networks. Here we extend this interdependent network model by considering flows in the networks and study the system's resilience under different attack strategies. In our model, nodes may fail due to either overload or loss of interdependency. Under the interaction between these two failure mechanisms, it is shown that interdependent scale-free networks show extreme vulnerability. The resilience of interdependent SF networks is found in our simulation much smaller than single SF network or interdependent SF networks without flows.

Abstract:
Many real-world networks depend on other networks, often in non-trivial ways, to maintain their functionality. These interdependent "networks of networks" are often extremely fragile. When a fraction $1-p$ of nodes in one network randomly fails, the damage propagates to nodes in networks that are interdependent and a dynamic failure cascade occurs that affects the entire system. We present dynamic equations for two interdependent networks that allow us to reproduce the failure cascade for an arbitrary pattern of interdependency. We study the "rich club" effect found in many real interdependent network systems in which the high-degree nodes are extremely interdependent, correlating a fraction $\alpha$ of the higher degree nodes on each network. We find a rich phase diagram in the plane $p-\alpha$, with a triple point reminiscent of the triple point of liquids that separates a non-functional phase from two functional phases.

Abstract:
Two stochastic models are proposed to generate a system composed of two interdependent scale-free (SF) or Erd\H{o}s-R\'{e}nyi (ER) networks where interdependent nodes are connected with exponential or power-law relation, as well as different dependence strength, respectively. Each subnetwork grows through the addition of new nodes with constant accelerating random attachment in the first model but with preferential attachment in the second model. Two subnetworks interact with multi-support and undirectional dependence links. The effect of dependence relations and strength between subnetworks are analyzed in the percolation behavior of fully interdependent networks against random failure, both theoretically and numerically, and as a result, for both relations: interdependent SF networks show a second-order percolation phase transition and increased dependence strength decreases the robustness of the system, whereas, interdependent ER networks show the opposite results. In addition, power-law relation between networks yields greater robustness than exponential one at given dependence strength.

Abstract:
Many systems, ranging from engineering to medical to societal, can only be properly characterized by multiple interdependent networks whose normal functioning depends on one another. Failure of a fraction of nodes in one network may lead to a failure in another network. This in turn may cause further malfunction of additional nodes in the first network and so on. Such a cascade of failures, triggered by a failure of a small faction of nodes in only one network, may lead to the complete fragmentation of all networks. We introduce a model and an analytical framework for studying interdependent networks. We obtain interesting and surprising results that should significantly effect the design of robust real-world networks. For two interdependent Erdos-Renyi (ER) networks, we find that the critical average degree below which both networks collapse is =2.445, compared to =1 for a single ER network. Furthermore, while for a single network a broader degree distribution of the network nodes results in higher robustness to random failure, for interdependent networks, the broader the distribution is, the more vulnerable the networks become to random failure.

Abstract:
It was recently recognized that interdependencies among different networks can play a crucial role in triggering cascading failures and hence system-wide disasters. A recent model shows how pairs of interdependent networks can exhibit an abrupt percolation transition as failures accumulate. We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the two interdependent networks significantly changes the critical density of failures that triggers the total disruption of the two-network system. Specifically, we find that the assortativity (i.e. the likelihood of nodes with similar degree to be connected) within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. The results of this study on the influence of assortativity may provide insights into ways of improving the robustness of network architecture, and thus enhances the level of protection of critical infrastructures.