Abstract:
We present a construction of non-equilibrium steady states within conformal field theory. These states sustain energy flows between two quantum systems, initially prepared at different temperatures, whose dynamical properties are represented by two, possibly different, conformal field theories connected through an impurity. This construction relies on a real time formulation of conformal defect dynamics based on a field scattering picture parallelizing - but yet different from - the Euclidean formulation. We present the basic characteristics of this formulation and give an algebraic construction of the real time scattering maps that we illustrate in the case of SU(2)-based conformal field theories.

Abstract:
We develop a hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theory. We study non-equilibrium steady states in the context of one-dimensional conformal field theory perturbed by the $T\bar T$ irrelevant operator. By direct quantum computation, we show, to first order in the coupling, that a relativistic hydrodynamic emerges, which is a simple modification of one-dimensional conformal fluids. We show that it describes the steady state and its approach, and we provide the main characteristics of the steady state, which lies between two shock waves. The velocities of these shocks are modified by the perturbation and equal the sound velocities of the asymptotic baths. Pushing further this approach, we are led to conjecture that the approach to the steady state is generically controlled by the power law $t^{-1/2}$, and that the widths of the shocks increase with time according to $t^{1/3}$.

Abstract:
We study the energy current and its fluctuations in quantum gapless 1d systems far from equilibrium modeled by conformal field theory, where two separated halves are prepared at distinct temperatures and glued together at a point contact. We prove that these systems converge towards steady states, and give a general description of such non-equilibrium steady states in terms of quantum field theory data. We compute the large deviation function, also called the full counting statistics, of energy transfer through the contact. These are universal and satisfy fluctuation relations. We provide a simple representation of these quantum fluctuations in terms of classical Poisson processes whose intensities are proportional to Boltzmann weights.

Abstract:
We consider the problem of constructing a thermodynamic theory of non-equilibrium steady states as a formal extension of the equilibrium theory. Specifically, studying a particular system, we attempt to construct a phenomenological theory describing the interplay between heat and mechanical work that takes place during operations through which the system undergoes transitions between non-equilibrium steady states. We find that, in contrast to the case of the equilibrium theory, apparently, there exists no systematic way within a phenomenological formulation to describe the work done by the system during such operations. With this observation, we conclude that the attempt to construct a thermodynamic theory of non-equilibrium steady states in analogy to the equilibrium theory has limited prospects for success and that the pursuit of such a theory should be directed elsewhere.

Abstract:
We evaluate the exact energy current and scaled cumulant generating function (related to the large-deviation function) in non-equilibrium steady states with energy flow, in any integrable model of relativistic quantum field theory (IQFT) with diagonal scattering. Our derivations are based on various recent results of D. Bernard and B. Doyon. The steady states are built by connecting homogeneously two infinite halves of the system thermalized at different temperatures $T_l$, $T_r$, and waiting for a long time. We evaluate the current $J(T_l,T_r)$ using the exact QFT density matrix describing these non-equilibrium steady states and using Al.B. Zamolodchikov's method of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA). The scaled cumulant generating function is obtained from the extended fluctuation relations which hold in integrable models. We verify our formula in particular by showing that the conformal field theory (CFT) result is obtained in the high-temperature limit. We analyze numerically our non-equilibrium steady-state TBA equations for three models: the sinh-Gordon model, the roaming trajectories model, and the sine-Gordon model at a particular reflectionless point. Based on the numerics, we conjecture that an infinite family of non-equilibrium $c$-functions, associated to the scaled cumulants, can be defined, which we interpret physically. We study the full scaled distribution function and find that it can be described by a set of independent Poisson processes. Finally, we show that the "additivity" property of the current, which is known to hold in CFT and was proposed to hold more generally, does not hold in general IQFT, that is $J(T_l,T_r)$ is not of the form $f(T_l)-f(T_r)$.

Abstract:
We consider non-equilibrium quantum steady states in conformal field theory (CFT) on star-graph configurations, with a particular, simple connection condition at the vertex of the graph. These steady states occur after a large time as a result of initially thermalizing the legs of the graph at different temperatures, and carry energy flows. Using purely Virasoro algebraic calculations we evaluate the exact long-time cumulant generating function for these flows. We show that this function satisfies a generalization of the usual non-equilibrium fluctuation relations. This extends the results by two of the authors (J. Phys. A 45: 362001, 2012; arXiv:1302.3125) to the cases of more than two legs. It also provides an alternative derivation centered on Virasoro algebra operators rather than local fields, hence an alternative regularization scheme, thus confirming the validity and universality of the long-time cumulant generating function. Our derivation shows how the usual Virasoro algebra leads, in large volumes, to a continuous-index Virasoro algebra for which we develop diagramatic principles, which may be of interest in other non-equilibrium contexts as well. Finally, our results shed light on the Poisson process interpretation of the long-time energy transfer in CFT.

Abstract:
These lecture notes give a short review of methods such as the matrix ansatz, the additivity principle or the macroscopic fluctuation theory, developed recently in the theory of non-equilibrium phenomena. They show how these methods allow to calculate the fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current in non-equilibrium steady states of systems like exclusion processes. The properties of these fluctuations and large deviation functions in non-equilibrium steady states (for example non-Gaussian fluctuations of density or non-convexity of the large deviation function which generalizes the notion of free energy) are compared with those of systems at equilibrium.

Abstract:
We study the classical non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of scalar field theory on the lattice. Steady states are analyzed near and far from equilibrium. The bulk thermal conductivity is computed, including its temperature dependence. We examine the validity of linear response predictions, as well as properties of the non-equilibrium steady state. We find that the linear response theory applies to visibly curved temperature profiles as long as the thermal gradients are not too strong. We also examine the transition from local equilibrium to local non-equilibrium.

Abstract:
We define an effective temperature and study its properties for a class of out-of-equilibrium steady states in a heat bath. Our analysis is based on the anti-de Sitter spacetime/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, and examples include systems driven by applied electric fields and branes dragged in plasmas. We found that the effective temperature can be lower than that of the heat bath and that the out-of-equilibrium noise can be smaller than that in equilibrium. We show that a generalization of the fluctuation-dissipation relation holds for the effective temperature. In particular, we generalize the Johnson-Nyquist relation for large electric field.

Abstract:
We study properties of effective temperature of non-equilibrium steady states by using the anti-de Sitter spacetime/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. We consider non-equilibrium systems with a constant flow of current along an electric field, in which the current is carried by both the doped charges and those pair created by the electric field. We find that the effective temperature agrees with that of the Langevin systems if we take the limit where the pair creation is negligible. The effect of pair creation raises the effective temperature whereas the current by the doped charges contributes to lower the effective temperature in a wide range of the holographic models.