Abstract:
We show that a large class of symmetry enriched (topological) phases of matter in 2+1 dimensions can be embedded in "larger" topological phases- phases describable by larger hidden Hopf symmetries. Such an embedding is analogous to anyon condensation, although no physical condensation actually occurs. This generalizes the Landau-Ginzburg paradigm of symmetry breaking from continuous groups to quantum groups- in fact algebras- and offers a potential classification of the symmetry enriched (topological) phases thus obtained, including symmetry protected trivial phases as well, in a unified framework.

Abstract:
Topologically ordered systems in the presence of symmetries can exhibit new structures which are referred to as symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases. We introduce simple methods to detect the SET order directly from a complete set of topologically degenerate ground state wave functions. In particular, we first show how to directly determine the characteristic symmetry fractionalization of the quasiparticles from the reduced density matrix of the minimally entangled states. Second, we show how a simple generalization of a non-local order parameter can be measured to detect SETs. The usefulness of the proposed approached is demonstrated by examining two concrete model states which exhibit SET: (i) a spin-1 model on the honeycomb lattice and (ii) the resonating valence bond state on a kagome lattice. We conclude that the spin-1 model and the RVB state are in the same SET phases.

Abstract:
Recently a new class of quantum phases of matter: symmetry protected topological states, such as topological insulators, attracted much attention. In presence of interactions, group cohomology provides a classification of these [X. Chen et al., arXiv:1106.4772v5 (2011)]. These phases have short-ranged entanglement, and no topological order in the bulk. However, when long-range entangled topological order is present, it is much less understood how to classify quantum phases of matter in presence of global symmetries. Here we present a classification of bosonic gapped quantum phases with or without long-range entanglement, in the presence or absence of on-site global symmetries. In 2+1 dimensions, the quantum phases in the presence of a global symmetry group SG, and with topological order described by a finite gauge group GG, are classified by the cohomology group H^3(SGxGG,U(1)). Generally in d+1 dimensions, such quantum phases are classified by H^{d+1}(SGxGG,U(1)). Although we only partially understand to what extent our classification is complete, we present an exactly solvable local bosonic model, in which the topological order is emergent, for each given class in our classification. When the global symmetry is absent, the topological order in our models is described by the general Dijkgraaf-Witten discrete gauge theories. When the topological order is absent, our models become the exactly solvable models for symmetry protected topological phases [X. Chen et al., arXiv:1106.4772v5 (2011)]. When both the global symmetry and the topological order are present, our models describe symmetry enriched topological phases. Our classification includes, but goes beyond the previously discussed projective symmetry group classification. Measurable signatures of these symmetry enriched topological phases, and generalizations of our classification are discussed.

Abstract:
Topologically ordered phases of matter, in particular so-called symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases, can exhibit quantum number fractionalization in the presence of global symmetry. In Z_2 topologically ordered states in two dimensions, fundamental translations T_x and T_y acting on anyons can either commute or anticommute. This property, crystal momentum fractionalization, can be seen in a periodicity of the excited-state spectrum in the Brillouin zone. We present a numerical method to detect the presence of this form of symmetry enrichment given a projected entangled pair state (PEPS); we study the minima of spectrum of correlation lengths of the transfer matrix for a cylinder. As a benchmark, we demonstrate our method using a modified toric code model with perturbation. An enhanced periodicity in momentum clearly reveals the anticommutation relation {T_x,T_y}=0$ for the corresponding quasiparticles in the system.

Abstract:
Recently, there is a considerable study on gapped symmetric phases of bosons that do not break any symmetry. Even without symmetry breaking, the bosons can still be in many exotic new states of matter, such as symmetry-protected trivial (SPT) phases which are short-range entangled and symmetry-enriched topological (SET) phases which are long-range entangled. It is well-known that non-interacting fermionic topological insulators are SPT states protected by time-reversal symmetry and U(1) fermion number conservation symmetry. In this paper, we construct three-dimensional exotic phases of bosons with time-reversal symmetry and boson number conservation U(1) symmetry by means of fermionic projective construction. We first construct an algebraic bosonic insulator which is a symmetric bosonic state with an emergent U(1) gapless gauge field. We then obtain many gapped bosonic states that do not break the time-reversal symmetry and boson number conservation via proper dyon condensations. We identify the constructed states by calculating the allowed electric and magnetic charges of their excitations, as well as the statistics and the symmetric transformation properties of those excitations. This allows us to show that our constructed states can be trivial SPT states (i.e. trivial Mott insulators of bosons with symmetry), non-trivial SPT states (i.e. bosonic topological insulators) and SET states (i.e. fractional bosonic topological insulators). In non-trivial SPT states, the elementary monopole (carrying zero electric charge but unit magnetic charge) and elementary dyon (carrying both unit electric charge and unit magnetic charge) are fermionic and bosonic, respectively. In SET states, intrinsic excitations may carry fractional charge.

Abstract:
In topological phases in $2+1$ dimensions, anyons fall into representations of quantum group symmetries. As proposed in our work (arXiv:1308.4673), physics of a symmetry enriched phase can be extracted by the Mathematics of (hidden) quantum group symmetry breaking of a "parent phase". This offers a unified framework and classification of the symmetry enriched (topological) phases, including symmetry protected trivial phases as well. In this paper, we extend our investigation to the case where the "parent" phases are non-Abelian topological phases. We show explicitly how one can obtain the topological data and symmetry transformations of the symmetry enriched phases from that of the "parent" non-Abelian phase. Two examples are computed: (1) the $\text{Ising}\times\overline{\text{Ising}}$ phase breaks into the $\mathbb{Z}_2$ toric code with $\mathbb{Z}_2$ global symmetry; (2) the $SU(2)_8$ phase breaks into the chiral Fibonacci $\times$ Fibonacci phase with a $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry, a first non-Abelian example of symmetry enriched topological phase beyond the gauge theory construction.

Abstract:
We study the quantized topological terms in a weak-coupling gauge theory with gauge group $G_g$ and a global symmetry $G_s$ in $d$ space-time dimensions. We show that the quantized topological terms are classified by a pair $(G,\nu_d)$, where $G$ is an extension of $G_s$ by $G_g$ and $\nu_d$ an element in group cohomology $\cH^d(G,\R/\Z)$. When $d=3$ and/or when $G_g$ is finite, the weak-coupling gauge theories with quantized topological terms describe gapped symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases (i.e. gapped long-range entangled phases with symmetry). Thus, those SET phases are classified by $\cH^d(G,\R/\Z)$, where $G/G_g=G_s$. We also apply our theory to a simple case $G_s=G_g=Z_2$, which leads to 12 different SET phases in 2+1D, where quasiparticles have different patterns of fractional $G_s=Z_2$ quantum numbers and fractional statistics. If the weak-coupling gauge theories are gapless, then the different quantized topological terms may describe different gapless phases of the gauge theories with a symmetry $G_s$, which may lead to different fractionalizations of $G_s$ quantum numbers and different fractional statistics (if in 2+1D).

Abstract:
We study three dimensional Z2 topological phases enriched by time-reversal symmetry with bosonic bulk excitations. Some of these phases can be constructed by simply coupling the three dimensional symmetry protected topological phases with Z2 and time-reversal symmetry to a deconfined Z2 gauge field. Besides these simple phases, we also construct two special root phases, whose boundary can have an extra Z2 topological order in addition to their bulk topological order, and the boundary anyon excitations can have fractional time-reversal transformation T with T^4 = -1. In particular, the boundary e and m anyons of one of the two root phases are interchanged under time-reversal transformation, and they must be degenerate and orthogonal with each other. Eventually we obtain 8 different time-reversal enriched Z2 topological phases with bosonic bulk excitations in three dimension.

Abstract:
The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem and its higher dimensional generalizations by Oshikawa and Hastings require that translationally invariant 2D spin systems with a half-integer spin per unit cell must either have a continuum of low energy excitations, spontaneously break some symmetries, or exhibit topological order with anyonic excitations. We establish a connection between these constraints and a remarkably similar set of constraints at the surface of a 3D interacting topological insulator. This enables us to develop a framework for understanding the structure of symmetry-enriched topological phases with translational and on-site unitary symmetries, including the effective theory of symmetry defects. This framework places stringent constraints on the possible types of symmetry fractionalization that can occur in 2D systems whose unit cell contains fractional spin, fractional charge, or a projective representation of the symmetry group. As a concrete application, we determine when a topological phase must possess a "spinon" excitation, even in cases when spin rotational invariance is broken down to a discrete subgroup by the crystal structure.

Abstract:
We study a topological phase of interacting bosons in (3+1) dimensions which is protected by charge conservation and time-reversal symmetry. We present an explicit lattice model which realizes this phase and which can be studied in sign-free Monte Carlo simulations. The idea behind our model is to bind bosons to topological defects called hedgehogs. We determine the phase diagram of the model and identify a phase where such bound states are proliferated. In this phase we observe a Witten effect in the bulk whereby an external monopole binds half of the elementary boson charge, which confirms that it is a bosonic topological insulator. We also study the boundary between the topological insulator and a trivial insulator. We find a surface phase diagram which includes exotic superfluids, a topologically ordered phase, and a phase with a Hall effect quantized to one-half of the value possible in a purely two-dimensional system. We also present models that realize symmetry-enriched topologically-ordered phases by binding multiple hedgehogs to each boson; these phases show charge fractionalization and intrinsic topological order as well as a fractional Witten effect.