Abstract:
Viscosity plays a critical role in determining the stability of rotating neutron stars. We report the results of a calculation of the shear viscosity of $\beta$~-~stable matter, carried out using an effective interaction based on a state-of-the-art nucleon-nucleon potential and the formalism of correlated basis functions. Within our approach the equation of state, determining the proton fraction, and the nucleon-nucleon scattering probability are consistently obtained from the same dynamical model. The results show that, while the neutron contribution to the viscosity is always dominant, above nuclear saturation density the electron contribution becomes appreciable.

Abstract:
The shear viscosity of hot nuclear matter is investigated by using the mean free path method within the framework of IQMD model. Finite size nuclear sources at different density and temperature are initialized based on the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The results show that shear viscosity to entropy density ratio decreases with the increase of temperature and tends toward a constant value for $\rho\sim\rho_0$, which is consistent with the previous studies on nuclear matter formed during heavy-ion collisions. At $\rho\sim\frac{1}{2}\rho_0$, a minimum of $\eta/s$ is seen at around $T=10$ MeV and a maximum of the multiplicity of intermediate mass fragment ($M_{\text{IMF}}$) is also observed at the same temperature which is an indication of the liquid-gas phase transition.

Abstract:
We discuss shear viscosity of the quark matter by using Kubo formula. The shear viscosity is calculated in the framework of the quasi-particle RPA for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We obtain a formula that the shear viscosity is expressed by the quadratic form of the quark spectral function in the chiral symmetric phase. The magnitude of the shear viscosity is discussed assuming the Breit-Wigner type for the spectral function.

Abstract:
We investigate the shear viscosity of neutron star matter in the presence of an antikaon condensate. The electron and muon number densities are reduced due to the appearance of a $K^-$ condensate in neutron star matter, whereas the proton number density increases. Consequently the shear viscosity due to scatterings of electrons and muons with themselves and protons is lowered compared to the case without the condensate. On the other hand, the contribution of proton-proton collisions to the proton shear viscosity through electromagnetic and strong interactions, becomes important and comparable to the neutron shear viscosity.

Abstract:
We consider the shear viscosity of a system of quarks and its ratio to the entropy density above the critical temperature for deconfinement. Both quantities are derived and computed for different modeling of the quark self-energy, also allowing for a temperature dependence of the effective mass and width. The behaviour of the viscosity and the entropy density is argued in terms of the strength of the coupling and of the main characteristics of the quark self-energy. A comparison with existing results is also discussed.

Abstract:
We calculate shear viscosity of the quark matter at finite temperature and density. If we assume that the quark interacts with the soft mode, which is a collective mode of quark-antiquark pair, the self energy of the quark is calculated by using the quasi-particle random phase approximation. It is shown that its imaginary part is large and the mean free path of the quark is short. With the use of the Kubo formula, the shear viscosity of quark matter becomes small. The Reynolds number of the quark matter is estimated to be about $3\sim 30$. As the temperature increases, the shear viscosity increases gradually for $T>200{\rm MeV}$. Moreover it is shown that the shear viscosity is not sensitive to the chemical potential.

Abstract:
Nuclear multifragmentation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions has long been associated with liquid-gas phase transition. We calculate the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s for an equilibrated system of nucleons and fragments produced in multifragmentation within an extended statistical multifragmentation model. The temperature dependence of eta/s exhibits surprisingly similar behavior as that for water. In the coexistence phase of fragments and light particles, the ratio eta/s reaches a minimum of comparable depth as that for water in the vicinity of the critical temperature for liquid-gas phase transition. The effects of freeze-out volume and surface symmetry energy on eta/s in multifragmentation are studied.

Abstract:
We calculate the shear viscosity $\eta$ and thermal conductivity $\kappa$ of a nuclear pasta phase in neutron star crusts. This involves complex non-spherical shapes. We use semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations involving 40,000 to 100,000 nucleons. The viscosity $\eta$ can be simply expressed in terms of the height $Z^*$ and width $\Delta q$ of the peak in the static structure factor $S_p(q)$. We find that $\eta$ increases somewhat, compared to a lower density phase involving spherical nuclei, because $Z^*$ decreases from form factor and ion screening effects. However, we do not find a dramatic increase in $\eta$ from non-spherical shapes, as may occur in conventional complex fluids.

Abstract:
We study shear viscosities of different species in hot and neutrino-trapped dense matter relevant to protoneutron stars. It is found that the shear viscosities of neutrons, protons and electrons in neutrino-trapped matter are of the same orders of magnitude as the corresponding shear viscosities in neutrino-free matter. Above all, the shear viscosity due to neutrinos is higher by several orders of magnitude than that of other species in neutrino-trapped matter. Next we investigate the effect of shear viscosity in particular, neutrino shear viscosity on the thermal nucleation rate of droplets of antikaon condensed matter in protoneutron stars. The first-order phase transition from hadronic matter to antikaon condensed matter is driven by the thermal nucleation process. We compute the equation of state used for the calculation of shear viscosity and thermal nucleation time within the relativistic mean field model. Neutrino shear viscosity enhances the prefactor in the nucleation rate by several orders of magnitude compared with the $T^4$ approximation of earlier calculations. Consequently the thermal nucleation time in the $T^4$ approximation overestimates our result. Furthermore, the thermal nucleation of an antikaon droplet might be possible in neutrino-trapped matter before neutrino diffusion takes place.

Abstract:
For beta-equilibrated nuclear matter we estimate the contribution to the bulk viscosity from purely leptonic processes, namely the conversion of electrons to and from muons. For oscillation frequencies in the kiloHertz range, we find that this process provides the dominant contribution to the bulk viscosity when the temperature is well below the critical temperature for superconductivity or superfluidity of the nuclear matter.