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 Entropy , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/e15041232 Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the evaporation of water droplets containing either dissolved LiCl, NaCl or KCl salt in a gaseous surrounding (nitrogen) with a constant high temperature of 600 K. The initial droplet has 298 K temperature and contains 1,120 water molecules, 0, 40, 80 or 120 salt molecules. The effects of the salt type and concentration on the evaporation rate are examined. Three stages with different evaporation rates are observed for all cases. In the initial stage of evaporation, the droplet evaporates slowly due to low droplet temperature and high evaporation latent heat for water, and pure water and aqueous solution have almost the same evaporation rates. In the second stage, evaporation rate is increased significantly, and evaporation is somewhat slower for the aqueous salt-containing droplet than the pure water droplet due to the attracted ion-water interaction and hydration effect. The Li +-water has the strongest interaction and hydration effect, so LiCl aqueous droplets evaporate the slowest, then NaCl and KCl. Higher salt concentration also enhances the ion-water interaction and hydration effect, and hence corresponds to a slower evaporation. In the last stage of evaporation, only a small amount of water molecules are left in the droplet, leading to a significant increase in ion-water interactions, so that the evaporation becomes slower compared to that in the second stage.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3672106 Abstract: We consider a theoretical model for a binary mixture of colloidal particles and spherical emulsion droplets. The hard sphere colloids interact via additional short-ranged attraction and long-ranged repulsion. The droplet-colloid interaction is an attractive well at the droplet surface, which induces the Pickering effect. The droplet-droplet interaction is a hard-core interaction. The droplets shrink in time, which models the evaporation of the dispersed (oil) phase, and we use Monte Carlo simulations for the dynamics. In the experiments, polystyrene particles were assembled using toluene droplets as templates. The arrangement of the particles on the surface of the droplets was analyzed with cryogenic field emission scanning electron microscopy. Before evaporation of the oil, the particle distribution on the droplet surface was found to be disordered in experiments, and the simulations reproduce this effect. After complete evaporation, ordered colloidal clusters are formed that are stable against thermal fluctuations. Both in the simulations and with field emission scanning electron microscopy, we find stable packings that range from doublets, triplets, and tetrahedra to complex polyhedra of colloids. The simulated cluster structures and size distribution agree well with the experimental results. We also simulate hierarchical assembly in a mixture of tetrahedral clusters and droplets, and find supercluster structures with morphologies that are more complex than those of clusters of single particles.
 Joel Koplik Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4928029 Abstract: The surface impact and collisions of particle-laden nanodrops are studied using molecular dynamics computer simulations. The drops are composed of Lennard- Jones dimers and the particles are rigid spherical sections of a cubic lattice, with radii about 11 nm and 0.6 nm, respectively. Uniform suspensions of 21% and 42% particle concentrations and particle-coated drops are studied, and their behavior is compared to that of pure fluid drops of the same size. The relative velocities studied span the transition to splashing, and both wetting/miscible and non-wetting/immiscible cases are considered. Impacts normal to the surface and head-on collisions are studied and compared. In surface impact, the behavior of low-density suspensions and liquid marble drops is qualitatively similar to that of pure liquid, while the concentrated drops are solid-like on impact. Collisions produce a splash only at velocities signif- icantly higher than in impact, but the resulting drop morphology shows a similar dependence on solid concentration as in impact. In all cases the collision or impact produces a strong local enhancement in the kinetic energy density and temperature but not in the particle or potential energy densities. Mixing of the two colliding species is not enhanced by collisions, unless the velocity is so high as to cause drop disintegration.
 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012, Abstract: We present a novel kinetic multi-layer model for gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP) that treats explicitly all steps of mass transport and chemical reaction of semi-volatile species partitioning between gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk. KM-GAP is based on the PRA model framework (P schl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007), and it includes gas phase diffusion, reversible adsorption, surface reactions, bulk diffusion and reaction, as well as condensation, evaporation and heat transfer. The size change of atmospheric particles and the temporal evolution and spatial profile of the concentration of individual chemical species can be modeled along with gas uptake and accommodation coefficients. Depending on the complexity of the investigated system and the computational constraints, unlimited numbers of semi-volatile species, chemical reactions, and physical processes can be treated, and the model shall help to bridge gaps in the understanding and quantification of multiphase chemistry and microphysics in atmospheric aerosols and clouds. In this study we demonstrate how KM-GAP can be used to analyze, interpret and design experimental investigations of changes in particle size and chemical composition in response to condensation, evaporation, and chemical reaction. For the condensational growth of water droplets, our kinetic model results provide a direct link between laboratory observations and molecular dynamic simulations, confirming that the accommodation coefficient of water at ~270 K is close to unity (Winkler et al., 2006). Literature data on the evaporation of dioctyl phthalate as a function of particle size and time can be reproduced, and the model results suggest that changes in the experimental conditions like aerosol particle concentration and chamber geometry may influence the evaporation kinetics and can be optimized for efficient probing of specific physical effects and parameters. With regard to oxidative aging of organic aerosol particles, we illustrate how the formation and evaporation of volatile reaction products like nonanal can cause a decrease in the size of oleic acid particles exposed to ozone.
 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/acp-12-2777-2012 Abstract: We present a novel kinetic multi-layer model for gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP) that treats explicitly all steps of mass transport and chemical reaction of semi-volatile species partitioning between gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk. KM-GAP is based on the PRA model framework (P schl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007), and it includes gas phase diffusion, reversible adsorption, surface reactions, bulk diffusion and reaction, as well as condensation, evaporation and heat transfer. The size change of atmospheric particles and the temporal evolution and spatial profile of the concentration of individual chemical species can be modeled along with gas uptake and accommodation coefficients. Depending on the complexity of the investigated system and the computational constraints, unlimited numbers of semi-volatile species, chemical reactions, and physical processes can be treated, and the model shall help to bridge gaps in the understanding and quantification of multiphase chemistry and microphysics in atmospheric aerosols and clouds. In this study we demonstrate how KM-GAP can be used to analyze, interpret and design experimental investigations of changes in particle size and chemical composition in response to condensation, evaporation, and chemical reaction. For the condensational growth of water droplets, our kinetic model results provide a direct link between laboratory observations and molecular dynamic simulations, confirming that the accommodation coefficient of water at ~270 K is close to unity (Winkler et al., 2006). Literature data on the evaporation of dioctyl phthalate as a function of particle size and time can be reproduced, and the model results suggest that changes in the experimental conditions like aerosol particle concentration and chamber geometry may influence the evaporation kinetics and can be optimized for efficient probing of specific physical effects and parameters. With regard to oxidative aging of organic aerosol particles, we illustrate how the formation and evaporation of volatile reaction products like nonanal can cause a decrease in the size of oleic acid particles exposed to ozone.
 Physics , 2005, Abstract: Recently Biskup et al. [Europhys. Lett. 60 (2002) 21] studied the behaviour of d-dimensional finite-volume liquid-vapour systems at a fixed excess $\delta N$ of particles above the ambient gas density. They identify a dimensionless parameter $\Delta (\delta N)$ and a universal constant $\Delta_\mathrm{c}(d)$ and show that for $\Delta < \Delta_c$ a droplet of the dense phase occurs while for $\Delta > \Delta_c$ the excess is absorbed in the background. The fraction $\lambda_\Delta$ of excess particles forming the droplet is given explicitly. Furthermore, they state, that the same is true for solid-gas systems. To verify these results, we have simulated the spin-1/2 Ising model on a square lattice at constant magnetisation equivalent to a fixed particle excess in the lattice-gas picture. We measured the largest minority droplet, corresponding to the solid phase, at various system sizes ($L=40, ..., 640$). Using analytic values for the spontaneous magnetisation $m_0$, the susceptibility $\chi$ and interfacial free energy $\tau_\mathrm{W}$ for the infinite system, we were able to determine $\lambda_\Delta$ in very good agreement with the theoretical prediction.
 EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20122502030 Abstract: Large Eddy Simulation of vertical turbulent channel ow laden with particles are performed. The number of particles is chosen very large and the volume fraction of particles is high enough for consideration of two-way coupling. This means that the particles are in uenced by uid and vice versa. The inter-particle collisions are neglected. The Euler-Lagrange method is adopted, which means that the uid is considered to be continuum (Euler approach) and for each individual particle is solved Lagrangian equation of motion. Particles are considered to be spherical. The simulations are performed for different volume fractions of particles in the channel. The results are compared to the single-phase channel ow in order to investigate the effect of the particles on the turbulence statistics of the carrier phase
 International Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijc.v4n3p61 Abstract: A new modeling of heating and evaporation of fuel droplets and ignition of a fuel vapour/ air mixture in continuous form is suggested. The size distribution of fuel droplets is assumed to be continuous and found from the solution of the kinetic equation for the probability density function (PDF). The semi-transparency of droplets, the difference between the gas temperature and the external temperature are take into account. The model represent in dimensionless from, and the dynamics of the system is present in term of the dynamics of a multi-scale, singularly perturbed system (SPS)
 Physics , 2005, Abstract: The work show the characterization of a particle laden turbulent jet. For the velocity and mass flux masurements, a PDA system has been used. Either the continuous phase (air) or the dispersed phase (glass spheres) are measured; also, the single phase flow is measure to comparison.
 S. V. Lishchuk Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.043003 Abstract: The presence of even small amount of surfactant at the particle-laden fluid interface subjected to shear makes surface flow incompressible if the shear rate is small enough [T. M. Fischer et al, J. Fluid Mech. 558, 451 (2006)]. In the present paper the effective surface shear viscosity of a flat, low-concentration, particle-laden incompressible interface separating two immiscible fluids is calculated. The resulting value is found to be 7.6% larger than the value obtained without account for surface incompressibility.
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