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Superconductivity and Superfluidity as Universal Emergent Phenomena  [PDF]
Mike Guidry,Yang Sun
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Superconductivity (SC) or superfluidity (SF) is observed across a remarkably broad range of fermionic systems: in BCS, cuprate, iron-based, organic, and heavy-fermion superconductors, and superfluid helium-3 in condensed matter; in a variety of SC/SF phenomena in low-energy nuclear physics; in ultracold, trapped atomic gases; and in various exotic possibilities in neutron stars. The range of physical conditions and differences in microscopic physics defy all attempts to unify this behavior in any conventional picture. Here we propose a unification through the shared symmetry properties of the emergent condensed states, with microscopic differences absorbed into parameters. This, in turn, forces a rethinking of specific occurrences of SC/SF such as cuprate high-temperature superconductivity, which becomes far less mysterious when seen as part of a continuum of behavior shared by a variety of other systems.
Hydrostatic equilibrium in a magnetized, warped Galactic disc  [PDF]
Andrew Fletcher,Anvar Shukurov
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04418.x
Abstract: Hydrostatic equilibrium of the multiphase interstellar medium in the solar vicinity is reconsidered, with the regular and turbulent magnetic fields treated separately. The regular magnetic field strength required to support the gas is consistent with independent estimates provided energy equipartition is maintained between turbulence and random magnetic fields. Our results indicate that a midplane value of $B_{0}=4\mkG$ for the regular magnetic field near the Sun leads to more attractive models than $B_{0}=2\mkG$. The vertical profiles of both the regular and random magnetic fields contain disc and halo components whose parameters we have determined. The layer at $1\la|z|\la4\kpc$ can be overpressured and an outflow at a speed of about $50\kms$ may occur there, presumably associated with a Galactic fountain flow, if $B_{0}\simeq 2\mkG$. We show that hydrostatic equilibrium in a warped disc must produce asymmetric density distributions in $z$, in rough agreement with \HI observations in the outer Galaxy. This asymmetry may be a useful diagnostic of the details of the warping mechanism in the Milky Way and other galaxies. We find indications that gas and magnetic field pressures are different above and below the warped midplane in the outer Galaxy and quantify the difference in terms of turbulent velocity and/or magnetic field strength.
Radiation Spectrum of a Magnetized Supercritical Accretion Disc with Thermal Conduction  [PDF]
M. Ghasemnezhad,M. Khajavi,S. Abbassi
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s10509-013-1451-0
Abstract: We examine the effect of thermal conduction on the observational properties of a super critical hot magnetized flow. We obtained self-similar solution of a magnetized disc when the thermal conduction plays an important role. Follow of our first paper (Ghasemnezhad et al. 2012 (hereafter GKA12)) we have extended our solution on the observational appearance of the disc to show how physical condition such as thermal conduction, viscosity, and advection will change the observed luminosity of the disc, Continuous spectra and surface temperature of such discs was plotted. We apply the present model to black-hole X-ray binary LMC X-3 and narrow-line seyfert 1 galaxies, which are supposed to be under critical accretion rate. Our results show clearly that the surface temperature is strongly depends on the thermal conduction, the magnetic field and advection parameter. However we see that thermal conduction acts to oppose the temperature gradient as we expect and observed luminosity of the disc will reduce when thermal conduction is high. We have shown that in this model the spectra of critical accretion flows strongly depends on the inclination angle.
Emergent phenomena in multicomponent superconductivity: an introduction to the focus issue  [PDF]
Milorad V. Milo?evi?,Andrea Perali
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0953-2048/28/6/060201
Abstract: Multicomponent superconductivity is a novel quantum phenomenon in many different superconducting materials, such as multiband ones in which different superconducting gaps open in different Fermi surfaces, films engineered at the atomic scale to enter the quantum confined regime, multilayers, two-dimensional electron gases at the oxide interfaces, and complex materials in which different electronic orbitals or different carriers participate in the formation of the superconducting condensate. In all these systems the increased number of degrees of freedom of the multicomponent superconducting wave-function allows for emergent quantum effects that are otherwise unattainable in single-component superconductors. In this editorial paper we introduce the present focus issue, exploring the complex but fascinating physics of multicomponent superconductivity.
Emergent topological phenomena in thin films of pyrochlore iridates  [PDF]
Bohm-Jung Yang,Naoto Nagaosa
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.246402
Abstract: Two quintessential ingredients governing the topological invariant of a system are the dimensionality and the symmetry of the system. Due to the recent development of thin film and artificial superstructure growth technique, it is possible to control the dimensionality of the system, smoothly between the two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In this work we unveil the dimensional crossover of emergent topological phenomena in correlated topological materials. In particular, by focusing on the thin film of pyrochlore iridate antiferromagnets grown along the [111] direction, we demonstrate that it can show giant anomalous Hall conductance, which is proportional to the thickness of the film, even though there is no Hall effect in 3D bulk material. In addition, we uncover the emergence of a new topological phase, whose nontrivial topological properties are hidden in the bulk insulator but manifest only in thin films. This shows that the thin film of topological materials is a new platform to search for unexplored novel topological phenomena.
Mesoscale phenomena in solutions of 3-methylpyridine, heavy water, and an antagonistic salt  [PDF]
Jan Leys,Deepa Subramanian,Eva Rodezno,Boualem Hammouda,Mikhail A. Anisimov
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1039/C3SM51662H
Abstract: We have investigated controversial issues regarding the mesoscale behavior of 3-methylpyridine (3MP), heavy water, and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh4) solutions by combining results obtained from dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We have addressed three questions: (i) what is the origin of the mesoscale inhomogeneities (order of 100 nm in size) manifested by the "slow mode" in DLS? (ii) Is the periodic structure observed from SANS an inherent property of this system? (iii) What is the universality class of critical behavior in this system? Our results confirm that the "slow mode" observed from DLS experiments corresponds to long-lived, highly stable mesoscale droplets (order of 100 nm in size), which occur only when the solute (3MP) is contaminated by hydrophobic impurities. SANS data confirm the presence of a periodic structure with a periodicity of about 10 nm. This periodic structure cannot be eliminated by nanopore filtration and thus is indeed an inherent solution property. The critical behavior of this system, in the range of concentration and temperatures investigated by DLS experiments, indicates that the criticality belongs to the universality class of the 3-dimensional Ising model.
Mesoscale solubilization and critical phenomena in binary and quasi binary solutions of hydrotropes  [PDF]
Andreas E. Robertson,Dung H. Phan,Joseph E. Macaluso,Vladimir N. Kuryakov,Elena V. Jouravleva,Christopher E. Bertrand,Igor K. Yudin,Mikhail A. Anisimov
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Hydrotropes are substances consisting of amphiphilic molecules that are too small to self assemble in equilibrium structures in aqueous solutions, but can form dynamic molecular clusters H bonded with water molecules. Some hydrotropes, such as low molecular weight alcohols and amines, can solubilize hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solutions at a mesoscopic scale, around 100 nm, with formation of long lived mesoscale droplets. In this work, we report on the studies of near critical and phase behavior of binary, 2,6-lutidine - H2O, and quasibinary, 2,6-lutidine - H2O - D2O, and tert-butanol - 2-butanol - H2O solutions in the presence of a solubilized hydrophobic impurity, cyclohexane. In additional to visual observation of fluid phase equilibria, two experimental techniques were used - light scattering and small - angle neutron scattering. It was found that the increase of the tert-butanol to 2-butanol ratio affects the liquid - liquid equilibria in the quasi-binary system at ambient pressure in the same way as the increase of pressure modifies the phase behavior of binary 2-butanol - H2O solutions. The correlation length of critical fluctuations near the liquid-liquid separation and the size of mesoscale droplets of solubilized cyclohexane were obtained by dynamic light scattering and by small - angle neutron scattering. It is shown that the effect of the presence of small amounts of cyclohexane on the near - critical phase behavior is twofold - the transition temperature changes towards increasing the two-phase domain, and long-lived mesoscopic inhomogeneities emerge in the macroscopically homogeneous domain. These homogeneities remain unchanged upon approach to the critical point of macroscopic phase separation and do not alter the universal nature of criticality. However, a larger amount of cyclohexane generates additional liquid-liquid phase separation at lower temperatures.
Extending the Shakura-Sunyaev approach to a strongly magnetized accretion disc model  [PDF]
V. I. Pariev,E. G. Blackman,S. A. Boldyrev
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030868
Abstract: We develop a model of thin turbulent accretion discs supported by magnetic pressure of turbulent magnetic fields. This applies when the turbulent kinetic and magnetic energy densities are greater than the thermal energy density in the disc. Whether such discs survive in nature or not remains to be determined, but here we simply demonstrate that self-consistent solutions exist when the alpha-prescription for the viscous stress, similar to that of the original Shakura-Sunyaev model, is used. We show that \alpha \sim 1 for the strongly magnetized case and we calculate the radial structure and emission spectra from the disc in the regime when it is optically thick. Strongly magnetized optically thick discs can apply to the full range of disc radii for objects < 10^{-2} of the Eddington luminosity or for the outer parts of discs in higher luminosity sources. In the limit that the magnetic pressure is equal to the thermal or radiation pressure, our strongly magnetized disc model transforms into the Shakura-Sunyaev model with \alpha=1. Our model produces spectra quite similar to those of standard Shakura-Sunyaev models. In our comparative study, we also discovered a small discrepancy in the spectral calculations of Shakura and Sunyaev (1973).
The jet power extracted from a magnetized accretion disc  [PDF]
Xinwu Cao
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05375.x
Abstract: We consider the power of a relativistic jet accelerated by the magnetic field of an accretion disc. It is found that the power extracted from the disc is mainly determined by the field strength and configuration of the field far from the disc. Comparing with the power extracted from a rotating black hole, we find that the jet power extracted from a disc can dominate over that from the rotating black hole. But in some cases, the jet power extracted from a rapidly rotating hole can be more important than that from the disc even if the poloidal field threading the hole is not significantly larger than that threading the inner edge of the disc. The results imply that the radio-loudness of quasars may be governed by its accretion rate which might be regulated by the central black hole mass. It is proposed that the different disc field generation mechanisms might be tested against observations of radio-loud quasars if their black hole masses are available.
Evolution characteristics of central black hole of magnetized accretion disc  [PDF]
D. X. Wang,K. Xiao,W. H. Lei
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05652.x
Abstract: Evolution characteristics of a Kerr black hole (BH) are investigated by considering coexistence of disc accretion with the Blandford-Znajek process (the BZ process). (i) The rate of extracting energy from the rotating BH in the BZ process and that in MC process are expressed by a unified formula, which is derived by using an improved equivalent cicuit. (ii) The mapping relation between the angular coordinate on the BH horizon and the radial coordinate on the disc is given in the context of general relativity and conservation of magnetic flux. (iii) The power and torque in the BZ process are compared with those in MC process in detail. (iv)Evolution characteristics of the BH and energy extracting efficiency are discussed by using the characteristics functions of BH evolution in the corresponding parameter space. (v) Power dissipation on the BH horizon and BH entropy increase are discussed by considering the coexistence of the above energy mechanisms.
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