Abstract:
If dark matter in the galactic halo is composed of bosons that form a Bose-Einstein condensate then it is likely that the rotation of the halo will lead to the nucleation of vortices. After a review of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, the Thomas-Fermi approximation and vortices in general, we consider vortices in detail. We find strong bounds for the boson mass, interaction strength, the shape and quantity of vortices in the halo, the critical rotational velocity for the nucleation of vortices and, in the Thomas-Fermi regime, an exact solution for the mass density of a single, axisymmetric vortex.

Abstract:
We report the first measurement of the excitation spectrum and the static structure factor of a Bose-Einstein condensate. The excitation spectrum displays a linear phonon regime, as well as a parabolic single-particle regime. The linear regime provides an upper limit for the superfluid critical velocity, by the Landau criterion. The excitation spectrum agrees well with the Bogoliubov spectrum, in the local density approximation. This agreement continues even for excitations close to the long-wavelength limit of the region of applicability of the approximation. Feynman's relation between the excitation spectrum and the static structure factor is verified, within an overall constant.

Abstract:
We consider the global cosmological evolution and the evolution of the density contrast in the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter model, in the framework of a Post-Newtonian cosmological approach. In the Bose-Einstein model, dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state. For a condensate with quartic non-linearity, the equation of state is polytropic with index $n=1$. The basic equation describing the evolution of the perturbations of the Bose-Einstein condensate is obtained, and its solution is studied by using both analytical and numerical methods. The global cosmological evolution as well as the evolution of the perturbations of the condensate dark matter shows significant differences with respect to the pressureless dark matter model, considered in the framework of standard cosmology. Therefore the presence of condensate dark matter could have modified drastically the cosmological evolution of the early universe, as well as the large scale structure formation process.

Abstract:
The spectrum of light scattered from a Bose-Einstein condensate is studied in the limit of particle-number conservation. To this end, a description in terms of deformed bosons is invoked and this leads to a deviation from the usual predict spectrum's shape as soon as the number of particles decreases.

Abstract:
Using recently developed nonrelativistic numerical simulation code, we investigate the stability properties of compact astrophysical objects that may be formed due to the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. Once the temperature of a boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Due to dark matter accretion, a Bose-Einstein condensed core can also be formed inside massive astrophysical objects such as neutron stars or white dwarfs, for example. Numerically solving the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of coupled differential equations, we demonstrate, with longer simulation runs, that within the computational limits of the simulation the objects we investigate are stable. Physical properties of a self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensate are examined both in non-rotating and rotating cases.

Abstract:
We consider the possibility that the dark matter, which is required to explain the dynamics of the neutral hydrogen clouds at large distances from the galactic center, could be in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate. To study the condensate we use the non-relativistic Gross-Pitaevskii equation. By introducing the Madelung representation of the wave function, we formulate the dynamics of the system in terms of the continuity equation and of the hydrodynamic Euler equations. Hence dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian Bose-Einstein gravitational condensate gas, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state. In the case of a condensate with quartic non-linearity, the equation of state is polytropic with index $n=1$. To test the validity of the model we fit the Newtonian tangential velocity equation of the model with a sample of rotation curves of low surface brightness and dwarf galaxies, respectively. We find a very good agreement between the theoretical rotation curves and the observational data for the low surface brightness galaxies. The deflection of photons passing through the dark matter halos is also analyzed, and the bending angle of light is computed. The bending angle obtained for the Bose-Einstein condensate is larger than that predicted by standard general relativistic and dark matter models. Therefore the study of the light deflection by galaxies and the gravitational lensing could discriminate between the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter model and other dark matter models.

Abstract:
We consider the growth of cosmological perturbations to the energy density of dark matter during matter domination when dark matter is a scalar field that has undergone Bose-Einstein condensation. We study these inhomogeneities within the framework of both Newtonian gravity, where the calculation and results are more transparent, and General Relativity. The direction we take is to derive analytical expressions, which can be obtained in the small pressure limit. Throughout we compare our results to those of the standard cosmology, where dark matter is assumed pressureless, using our analytical expressions to showcase precise differences. We find, compared to the standard cosmology, that Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter leads to a scale factor, gravitational potential and density contrast that increase at faster rates.

Abstract:
Once the temperature of a bosonic gas is smaller than the critical, density dependent, transition temperature, a Bose - Einstein Condensation process can take place during the cosmological evolution of the Universe. Bose - Einstein Condensates are very strong candidates for dark matter, since they can solve some major issues in observational astrophysics, like, for example, the galactic core/cusp problem. The presence of the dark matter condensates also drastically affects the cosmic history of the Universe. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter temperature on the cosmological evolution of the Bose-Einstein Condensate dark matter systems. We formulate the basic equations describing the finite temperature condensate, representing a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation that takes into account the presence of the thermal cloud in thermodynamic equilibrium with the condensate. The temperature dependent equations of state of the thermal cloud and of the condensate are explicitly obtained in an analytical form. By assuming a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) geometry, the cosmological evolution of the finite temperature dark matter filled Universe is considered in detail in the framework of a two interacting fluid dark matter model, describing the transition from the initial thermal cloud to the low temperature condensate state. The dynamics of the cosmological parameters during the finite temperature dominated phase of the dark matter evolution are investigated in detail, and it is shown that the presence of the thermal excitations leads to an overall increase in the expansion rate of the Universe.

Abstract:
The creation and interaction of dark solitons in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated. For a miscible case, the interaction of dark solitons in different components is studied. Various possible scenarios are presented, including the formation of a soliton-soliton bound pair. We also analyze the soliton propagation in the presence of domains, and show that a dark soliton can be transferred from one component to the other at the domain wall when it exceeds a critical velocity. For lower velocities multiple reflections within the domain are observed, where the soliton is evaporated and accelerated after each reflection until it finally escapes from the domain.

Abstract:
In the framework of the Gross-Pitaevskii mean field approach it is shown that the supersonic flow of a Bose-Einstein condensate can support a new type of pattern--an oblique dark soliton. The corresponding exact solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is obtained. It is demonstrated by numerical simulations that oblique solitons can be generated by an obstacle inserted into the flow.