Abstract:
In the paper, the temperature associated with a dynamical spherically symmetric black hole or with a cosmological horizon is investigated from the point of view of a point-like detector. First, we briefly review the Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method for a generic dynamical spherically symmetric space-time, and present two applications of the tunneling method. Then, we apply a well-known relativistic quantum theoretical technique, namely the Unruh-DeWitt detector formalism for a conformally coupled scalar field in a generic FRW space-time. As an application, for the generic static black hole case and the FRW de Sitter case, making use of peculiar Kodama observer trajectories, the tunneling semiclassical results are fully recovered, automatically corrected by Tolman factors. Some remarks on the temperature of FRW universe are presented. For more general spaces interpolating de Sitter space with the Einstein-de Sitter universe a second set of poles is present, whose exact role remains to be clarified, plus an extra fluctuating term describing the way equilibrium is reached, similarly to de Sitter space. The simple thermal interpretation found for de Sitter space is lost and forces, at a same time, a different quantum interpretation of the horizon surface gravity for the cosmological FRW models.

Abstract:
Unruh-DeWitt detectors interacting locally with a quantum field are systems under consideration for relativistic quantum information processing. In most works, the detectors are assumed to be point-like and, therefore, couple with the same strength to all modes of the field spectrum. We propose the use of a more realistic detector model where the detector has a finite size conveniently tailored by a spatial profile. We design a spatial profile such that the detector, when inertial, naturally couples to a peaked distribution of Minkowski modes. In the uniformly accelerated case, the detector couples to a peaked distribution of Rindler modes. Such distributions are of special interest in the analysis of entanglement in non-inetial frames. We use our detector model to show the noise detected in the Minkowski vacuum and in single particle states is a function of the detector's acceleration.

Abstract:
We have shown the classical correspondence of Unruh effect in the classical relativistic electron theory in our previous work (gr-qc/0105051). Here we demonstrate the analogy between the classical relativistic electron theory and the classical Unruh-DeWitt type monopole detector theory. The field configuration generated by a uniformly accelerated detector is worked out. The classical correspondence of Unruh effect for scalar fields is shown by calculating the modified energy density for the scalar field around the detector. We conclude that a classical monopole detector cannot find any evidence about its acceleration unless it has a finite size.

Abstract:
We examine an Unruh-DeWitt particle detector coupled to a scalar field in three-dimensional curved spacetime. We first obtain a regulator-free expression for the transition probability in an arbitrary Hadamard state, working within first-order perturbation theory and assuming smooth switching, and we show that both the transition probability and the instantaneous transition rate remain well defined in the sharp switching limit. We then analyse a detector coupled to a massless conformally coupled field in the Hartle-Hawking vacua on the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, under both transparent and reflective boundary conditions at the infinity. A selection of stationary and freely-falling detector trajectories are examined, including the co-rotating trajectories, for which the response is shown to be thermal. Analytic results in a number of asymptotic regimes, including those of large and small mass, are complemented by numerical results in the interpolating regimes. The boundary condition at infinity is seen to have a significant effect on the transition rate.

Abstract:
We study the locality of the acceleration temperature in the Unruh effect. To this end, we develop a new formalism for the modeling of macroscopic irreversible detectors. In particular, the formalism allows for the derivation of the higher-order coherence functions, analogous to the ones employed in quantum optics, that encode temporal fluctuations and correlations in particle detection. We derive a causal and approximately local-in-time expression for an Unruh-Dewitt detector moving in a general path in Minkowski spacetime. Moreover, we derive the second-order coherence function for uniformly accelerated Unruh-Dewitt detectors. We find that the fluctuations in detection time for a single Unruh-Dewitt detector are thermal. However, the correlations in detection-time between two Unruh-Dewitt detectors with the same acceleration but separated by a finite distance are not thermal. This result suggests that the Unruh effect is fundamentally local, in the sense that the notion of acceleration temperature applies only to the properties of local field observables.

Abstract:
In this paper we deal with several issues regarding the localization properties of the Unruh-DeWitt (UdW) detector model. Since its original formulation as a pointlike detector, the UdW model has been used to study extensively the physics of quantum fields in presence of accelerations or curved backgrounds. Natural extensions of it have tried to take into account the spatial profile of such detectors, but all of them have met a series of problems in their spectral response which render them useless to study some of the most interesting physical scenarios. In this paper we provide a derivation of the smeared UdW interaction from QED first principles, then we analyze the spectral response of spatially smeared UdW detectors, and discuss the kind of spatial profiles which are useful for the study of relevant cases.

Abstract:
We analyze the response of an Unruh-DeWitt detector moving along an unbounded spatial trajectory in a two-dimensional spatial plane with constant independent magnitudes of both the four-acceleration and of a timelike proper time derivative of the four-accelration. In a Fermi-Walker frame moving with the detector, the direction of the acceleration rotates at a constant rate around a great circle. This is the motion of a charge in a uniform electric field when in the frame of the charge there is both an electric and a magnetic field. We compare the response of this detector to a detector moving with constant velocity in a thermal bath of the corresponding temperature for non-relativistic velocities, and in two regimes: ultraviolet and infrared. In infrared regime, the detector in the Minkowski space-time moving along the spatially two-dimensional trajectory should move with a higher speed to keep up with the same excitation rate of the inertial detector in a thermal bath. In ultraviolet regime, the dominant modification in the response of this detector compared to the black body spectrum of Unruh radiation is the same as the dominant modification perceived by a detector moving with constant velocity in a thermal bath.

Abstract:
Response of a circularly rotating Unrh-DeWitt detector to the Minkowski vacuum is investigated. What the detector observes depends on the surface (three volume) to define it by the Hamiltonian. Detectors in the past literature were defined on a surface of a constant Minkowski time, and this is the reason why rotating detectors investigated so far resister particles. No particle is detected by a detector defined by the Hamiltonian on a surface normal to the detector's orbit, in agreement with the global analysis of vacua. A detector with drift motion superposed on the linear acceleration is also examined, to find the same effect.

Abstract:
We examine an Unruh-DeWitt particle detector coupled to a scalar field in three-dimensional curved spacetime, within first-order perturbation theory. We first obtain a causal and manifestly regular expression for the instantaneous transition rate in an arbitrary Hadamard state. We then specialise to the Ba\~nados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole and to a massless conformally coupled field in the Hartle-Hawking vacuum. A co-rotating detector responds thermally in the expected local Hawking temperature, while a freely-falling detector shows no evidence of thermality in regimes that we are able to probe, not even far from the horizon. The boundary condition at the asymptotically anti-de Sitter infinity has a significant effect on the transition rate.

Abstract:
We analyse the response function of an Unruh--DeWitt detector moving with time-dependent acceleration along a one-dimensional trajectory in Minkowski spacetime. To extract the physics of the process, we propose an adiabatic expansion of this response function. This expansion is also a useful tool for computing the click rate of detectors in general trajectories. The expansion is done in powers of the time derivatives of the acceleration (jerk, snap, and higher derivatives). At the lowest order, we recover a Planckian spectrum with temperature proportional to the acceleration of the detector at each instant of the trajectory. Higher orders in the expansion involve powers of the derivatives of the acceleration, with well-behaved spectral coefficients with different shapes. Finally, we illustrate this analysis in the case of an initially inertial trajectory that acquires a given constant acceleration in a finite time.