Abstract:
The superconducting gap is the fundamental parameter that characterizes the superconducting state, and its symmetry is a direct consequence of the mechanism responsible for Cooper pairing. Here we discuss about angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting gap in the Fe-based high-temperature superconductors. We show that the superconducting gap is Fermi surface dependent and nodeless with small anisotropy, or more precisely, a function of the momentum location in the Brillouin zone. We show that while this observation seems inconsistent with weak coupling approaches for superconductivity in these materials, it is well supported by strong coupling models and global superconducting gaps. We also suggest that a smaller lifetime of the superconducting Cooper pairs induced by the momentum dependent interband scattering inherent to these materials could affect the residual density of states at low energies, which is critical for a proper evaluation of the superconducting gap.

Abstract:
We use angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the momentum dependence of the superconducting gap in NdFeAsO1-xFx single crystals. We find that the Gamma hole pocket is fully gapped below the superconducting transition temperature. The value of the superconducting gap is 15 +- 1.5 meV and its anisotropy around the hole pocket is smaller than 20% of this value. This is consistent with an isotropic or anisotropic s-wave symmetry of the order parameter or exotic d-wave symmetry with nodes located off the Fermi surface sheets. This is a significant departure from the situation in the cuprates, pointing to possibility that the superconductivity in the iron arsenic based system arises from a different mechanism.

Abstract:
We present an overview of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies of high-temperature cuprate superconductors aiming at elucidating the relationship between the superconductivity, the pseudogap, and the Fermi arc. ARPES studies of underdoped samples show a momentum dependence of the energy gap below Tc which deviates from a simple d-wave form, suggesting the coexistence of multiple energy scales in the superconducting state. Hence, two distinct energy scales have been introduced, namely, the gap near the node (characterized by Delta_0) and in the anti-nodal region (characterized by Delta^*). Dichotomy between them has been demonstrated from the material, doping, and temperature dependence of the energy gap. While Delta^* at the same doping level is approximately material independent, Delta_0 shows a strong material dependence tracking the magnitude of Tc,max. The anti-nodal gap does not close at Tc in contrast to the gap near the node which follows something closer to a BCS-like temperature dependence. An effective superconducting gap Delta_sc defined at the end point of the Fermi arc is found to be proportional to Tc's in various materials.

Abstract:
We have performed high resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements on superconducting electron-doped NaFe$_{0.95}$Co$_{0.05}$As ($T_{c}\sim$18 K). We observed a hole-like Fermi surface around the zone center and two electron-like Fermi surfaces around the M point which can be connected by the $Q=(\pi, \pi)$ wavevector, suggesting that scattering over the near-nested Fermi surfaces is important to the superconductivity of this "111" pnicitide. Nearly isotropic superconducting gaps with sharp coherent peaks are observed below $T_c$ on all three Fermi surfaces. Upon increasing temperature through $T_c$, the gap size shows little change while the coherence vanishes. Large ratios of $2\Delta/k_{B}T_{c}\sim8$ are observed for all the bands, indicating a strong coupling in this system. These results are not expected from a classical phonon-mediated pairing mechanism.

Abstract:
We present a study of the electronic ultrasound attenuation $\alpha$ in the unconventional superconductor Sr$_2$RuO$_4$ . The power law behavior of $\alpha$ at temperatures down to $T_c/30$ clearly indicates the presence of nodes in the gap. In the normal state, we find an enormous anisotropy of $\alpha$ in the basal plane of the tetragonal structure. In the superconducting state, the temperature dependence of $\alpha$ also exhibits significant anisotropy. We discuss these results in relation to possible gap functions.

Abstract:
We present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data on moderately underdoped La$_{1.855}$Sr$_{0.145}$CuO$_4$ at temperatures below and above the superconducting transition temperature. Unlike previous studies of this material, we observe sharp spectral peaks along the entire underlying Fermi surface in the superconducting state. These peaks trace out an energy gap that follows a simple {\it d}-wave form, with a maximum superconducting gap of 14 meV. Our results are consistent with a single gap picture for the cuprates. Furthermore our data on the even more underdoped sample La$_{1.895}$Sr$_{0.105}$CuO$_4$ also show sharp spectral peaks, even at the antinode, with a maximum superconducting gap of 26 meV.

Abstract:
We use heat capacity measurements as a function of field rotation to identify the nodal gap structure of CeIrIn5 at pressures to 2.05 GPa, deep inside its superconducting dome. A four-fold oscillation in the heat capacity at 0.3 K is observed for all pressures but with its sign reversed between 1.50 and 0.90 GPa. On the basis of recent theoretical models for the field-angle dependent specific heat, all data, including the sign reversal, imply a d{x^2-y^2} order parameter with nodes along [110], which constrains theoretical models of the pairing mechanism in CeIrIn5.

Abstract:
Electronic structure of newly synthesized single crystals of calcium iron arsenide doped with sodium with Tc ranging from 33 to 14 K has been determined by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The measured band dispersion is in general agreement with theoretical calculations, nonetheless implies absence of Fermi surface nesting at antiferromagnetic vector. A clearly developing below Tc strongly band-dependant superconducting gap has been revealed for samples with various doping levels. BCS ratio for optimal doping, $2\Delta/k_{\rm B}T_{\rm c}=5.5$, is substantially smaller than the numbers reported for related compounds, implying a non-trivial relation between electronic dispersion and superconducting gap in iron arsenides.

Abstract:
We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on the optimally-doped Ba$_{0.6}$K$_{0.4}$Fe$_2$As$_2$ compound and determined the accurate momentum dependence of the superconducting (SC) gap in four Fermi-surface sheets including a newly discovered outer electron pocket at the M point. The SC gap on this pocket is nearly isotropic and its magnitude is comparable ($\Delta$ $\sim$ 11 meV) to that of the inner electron and hole pockets ($\sim$12 meV), although it is substantially larger than that of the outer hole pocket ($\sim$6 meV). The Fermi-surface dependence of the SC gap value is basically consistent with $\Delta$($k$) = $\Delta$$_0$cos$k_x$cos$k_y$ formula expected for the extended s-wave symmetry. The observed finite deviation from the simple formula suggests the importance of multi-orbital effects.

Abstract:
Although nodeless superconducting gap has been observed on the large Fermi pockets around the zone corner in KxFe2-ySe2, whether its pairing symmetry is s-wave or nodeless d-wave is still under intense debate. Here we report an isotropic superconducting gap distribution on the small electron Fermi pocket around the Z point in KxFe2-ySe2, which favors the s-wave pairing symmetry.