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Absolute efficiency estimation of photon-number-resolving detectors using twin beams  [PDF]
A. P. Worsley,H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge,J. S. Lundeen,P. J. Mosley,B. J. Smith,G. Puentes,N. Thomas-Peter,I. A. Walmsley
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1364/OE.17.004397
Abstract: A nonclassical light source is used to demonstrate experimentally the absolute efficiency calibration of a photon-number-resolving detector. The photon-pair detector calibration method developed by Klyshko for single-photon detectors is generalized to take advantage of the higher dynamic range and additional information provided by photon-number-resolving detectors. This enables the use of brighter twin-beam sources including amplified pulse pumped sources, which increases the relevant signal and provides measurement redundancy, making the calibration more robust.
Absolute calibration of Analog Detectors using Stimulated Parametric Down Conversion  [PDF]
G. Brida,M. Chekhova,M. Genovese,M. L. Rastello,I. Ruo-Berchera
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1080/09500340802318317
Abstract: Spontaneous parametric down conversion has been largely exploited as a tool for absolute calibration of photon counting detectors, photomultiplier tubes or avalanche photodiodes working in Geiger regime. In this work we investigate the extension of this technique from very low photon flux of photon counting regime to the absolute calibration of analog photodetectors at higher photon flux. Moving toward higher photon rate, i.e. at high gain regime, with the spontaneous parametric down conversion shows intrinsic limitations of the method, while the stimulated parametric down conversion process, where a seed beam properly injected into the crystal in order to increase the photon generation rate in the conjugate arm, allows us to work around this problem. A preliminary uncertainty budget is discussed.
The possibility of absolute calibration of analog detectors by using parametric down-conversion: a systematical study  [PDF]
Giorgio Brida,Maria Chekhova,Marco Genovese,Alexander Penin,Ivano Ruo-Berchera
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1364/JOSAB.23.002185
Abstract: Accurate calibration of photodetectors both in analog and in photon-counting regime is fundamental for various scientific applications, which range from "traditional" quantum optics to the studies on foundations of quantum mechanics, quantum cryptography, quantum computation, etc. In this paper we systematically study the possibility of the absolute calibration of analog photo-detectors based on the properties of parametric amplifiers. Our results show that such a method can be effectively developed with interesting possible metrological applications.
Self Consistent Calibration of Detectors and Sources for Hard and Soft X-Ray Diagnostics  [PDF]
Danilo Pacella, Afra Romano, Seung Hun Lee, Federica Causa, Lori Gabellieri, Wonho Choe
Modern Instrumentation (MI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/mi.2014.33003
X-Ray sources, detectors and optical components are now used in a wide range of applications. What is crucial is the absolute calibration of such devices to permit a quantitative assessment of the system under study. A new X-ray laboratory has been built in Frascati (ENEA) to develop diagnostics for nuclear fusion experiments and study applications of these X-ray techniques in other domains, like new material science, non destructive tests and so on. An in-house developed selfconsistent calibration procedure is described that permits the absolute calibration of sources (X-ray emitted fluxes) and detectors (detection efficiencies) as function of the X-ray photon energy, in the range 2 - 120 keV. The calibration procedure involves the use of an in-house developed code that also predicts the spectral response of any detector in any experimental condition that can be setup in the laboratory. The procedure has been then applied for the calibration and characterisation of gas and solid state imaging detectors, such as Medipix-2, GEM gas detector, CCD camera, Cd-Te C-MOS imager, demonstrating the versatility of the method developed here.
Absolute Calibration of Analog Detectors by using Parametric Down Conversion  [PDF]
Giorgio Brida,Maria Chekhova,Marco Genovese,Alexander Penin,Maria Luisa Rastello,Ivano Ruo-Berchera
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: In this paper we report our systematic study of a promising absolute calibration technique of analog photo-detectors, based on the properties of parametric down conversion. Our formal results and a preliminary uncertainty analysis show that the proposed method can be effectively developed with interesting applications to metrology.
Analysis of the possibility of analog detectors calibration by exploiting Stimulated Parametric Down Conversion  [PDF]
Giorgio Brida,Maria Chekhova,Marco Genovese,Ivano Ruo-Berchera
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1364/OE.16.012550
Abstract: Spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) has been largely exploited as a tool for absolute calibration of photon-counting detectors, i.e detectors registering very small photon fluxes. In [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2185 (2006)] we derived a method for absolute calibration of analog detectors using SPDC emission at higher photon fluxes, where the beam is seen as a continuum by the detector. Nevertheless intrinsic limitations appear when high-gain regime of SPDC is required to reach even larger photon fluxes. Here we show that stimulated parametric down conversion allow one to avoid this limitation, since stimulated photon fluxes are increased by the presence of the seed beam.
An alpha tagged X-ray source for the calibration of space borne X-ray detectors  [PDF]
A. R. Rao,Sachindra Naik,Milind Patil,J. P. Malkar,R. P. S. Kalyan Kumar
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2010.02.092
Abstract: Calibration of X-ray detectors is very important to understand the performance characteristics of the detectors and their variation with time and changing operational conditions. This enables the most accurate translation of the measurements to absolute and relative values of the incident X-ray photon energy so that physical models of the source emission can be tested. It is a general practice to put a known X-ray source (radio active source) in the detector housing for the calibration purpose. This, however, increases the background. Tagging the calibration source with the signal from a simultaneously emitted charge particle (like alpha particle) can identify the X-ray event used for calibration. Here in this paper, we present a new design for an alpha-tagged X-ray source using Am^241 radio active source and describe its performance characteristics. Its application for the upcoming Astrosat satellite is also discussed.
Low-Temperature Light Detectors: Neganov-Luke Amplification and Calibration  [PDF]
C. Isaila,C. Ciemniak,F. v. Feilitzsch,A. Gütlein,J. Kemmer,T. Lachenmaier,J. -C. Lanfranchi,S. Pfister,W. Potzel,S. Roth,M. v. Sivers,R. Strauss,W. Westphal,F. Wiest
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2012.08.003
Abstract: The simultaneous measurement of phonons and scintillation light induced by incident particles in a scintillating crystal such as CaWO4 is a powerful technique for the active rejection of background induced by gamma's and beta's and even neutrons in direct Dark Matter searches. However, less than ~1% of the energy deposited in a CaWO4 crystal is detected as light. Thus, very sensitive light detectors are needed for an efficient event-by-event background discrimination. Due to the Neganov-Luke effect, the threshold of low-temperature light detectors based on semiconducting substrates can be improved significantly by drifting the photon-induced electron-hole pairs in an applied electric field. We present measurements with low-temperature light detectors based on this amplification mechanism. The Neganov-Luke effect makes it possible to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of our light detectors by a factor of ~9 corresponding to an energy threshold of ~21 eV. We also describe a method for an absolute energy calibration using a light-emitting diode.
Absolute self-calibration of the quantum efficiency of single-photon detectors

Chang Jun-Tao,Wu Ling-An,

物理学报 , 2003,
Abstract: An absolute self-calibration method is proposed for determining the quantum efficiency of a single photon detector which does not require any standard referenc e or a second detector. The method is based on the time correlation of photon pa irs generated in parametric downconversion. A beam of frequency downconverted ph otons is split at a polarizing beamsplitter then recombined at a second beamspli tter, but with a time delay introduced between them so that the two photons of a n original pair enter the detector one by one. The photoelectric pulses from the detector are split into three paths; a compensating delay is introduced into tw o of the paths so that the two signals arrive simultaneously at a coincidence co unter; the third path goes directly to a photon counter. From the ratio of the r eadings of the two counters we can derive the quantum efficiency of the detector . Two methods are given, one for continuous wave lasers and another for high rep etition rate pulsed lasers.
Comparative Test of Two Methods of Quantum Efficiency Absolute Measurement Based on Squeezed Vacuum Direct Detection  [PDF]
I. N. Agafonov,M. V. Chekhova,T. Sh. Iskhakov,A. N. Penin,G. O. Rytikov,O. A. Shumilkina
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We realize and test in experiment a method recently proposed for measuring absolute quantum efficiency of analog photodetectors. Similarly to the traditional (Klyshko) method of absolute calibration, the new one is based on the direct detection of two-mode squeezed vacuum at the output of a traveling wave OPA. However, in the new method one measures the difference-photocurrent variance rather than the correlation function of photocurrents (number of coincidences), which makes the technique applicable for high-gain OPA. In this work we test the new method versus the traditional one for the case of photon-counting detectors where both techniques are valid.
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