Abstract:
It is shown that a homogeneous two-component Fermi gas with (long range) dipolar and short-range isotropic interactions has a {\em ferro-nematic} phase for suitable values of the dipolar and short-range coupling constants. The ferro-nematic phase is characterized by having a non-zero magnetization and long range orientational uniaxial order. The Fermi surface of spin up (down) component is elongated (compressed) along the direction of the magnetization.

Abstract:
Based on the semi-classical theory, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of a dipolar Fermi gas. Through a self-consistent procedure, we numerically obtain the phase space distribution function at finite temperature. We show that the deformations in both momentum and real space becomes smaller and smaller as one increases the temperature. For homogeneous case, we also calculate pressure, entropy, and heat capacity. In particular, at low temperature limit and in weak interaction regime, we obtain an analytic expression for the entropy, which agrees qualitatively with our numerical result. The stability of a trapped gas at finite temperature is also explored.

Abstract:
Under the framework of the semiclassical theory, we investigate the equilibrium-state properties of a spin polarized dipolar Fermi gas through full numerical calculation. We show that the Fermi surfaces in both real and momentum spaces are stretched along the attractive direction of dipolar interaction. We further verify that the deformed Fermi surfaces can be well approximated by ellipsoids. In addition, the deformation parameters slightly depend on the local real- and momentum-space densities. We also study the interaction strength dependence of the energy and real- and momentum-space densities. By comparing them with variational results, we find that the ellipsoidal ansatz usually generates accurate results for weak dipolar interaction, while under strong dipolar interaction limit, notable discrepancy can be observed. Finally, we map out the stability boundary of the system.

Abstract:
The interplay between crystallinity and superfluidity is of great fundamental and technological interest in condensed matter settings. In particular, electronic quantum liquid crystallinity arises in the non-Fermi liquid, pseudogap regime neighboring a cuprate's unconventional superconducting phase. While the techniques of ultracold atomic physics and quantum optics have enabled explorations of the strongly correlated, many-body physics inherent in, e.g., the Hubbard model, lacking has been the ability to create a quantum degenerate Fermi gas with interparticle interactions---such as the strong dipole-dipole interaction---capable of inducing analogs to electronic quantum liquid crystals. We report the first quantum degenerate dipolar Fermi gas, the realization of which opens a new frontier for exploring strongly correlated physics and, in particular, the quantum melting of smectics in the pristine environment provided by the ultracold atomic physics setting. A quantum degenerate Fermi gas of the most magnetic atom 161Dy is produced by laser cooling to 10 uK before sympathetically cooling with ultracold, bosonic 162Dy. The temperature of the spin-polarized 161Dy is a factor T/TF=0.2 below the Fermi temperature TF=300 nK. The co-trapped 162Dy concomitantly cools to approximately Tc for Bose-Einstein condensation, thus realizing a novel, nearly quantum degenerate dipolar Bose-Fermi gas mixture.

Abstract:
We investigate the stability and the free expansion of a trapped dipolar Fermi gas. We show that stabilizing the system relying on tuning the trap geometry is generally inefficient. We further show that the expanded density profile always gets stretched along the attractive direction of dipolar interaction. We also point out that by switching off the dipolar interaction simultaneously with the trapping potential, the deformation of momentum distribution can be directly observed.

Abstract:
We calculate the critical temperature of a superfluid phase transition in a polarized Fermi gas of dipolar particles. In this case the order parameter is anisotropic and has a nontrivial energy dependence. Cooper pairs do not have a definite value of the angular momentum and are coherent superpositions of all odd angular momenta. Our results describe prospects for achieving the superfluid transition in single-component gases of fermionic polar molecules.

Abstract:
We theoretically investigate a polarized dipolar Fermi gas in free expansion. The inter-particle dipolar interaction deforms phase-space distribution in trap and also in the expansion. We exactly predict the minimal quadrupole deformation in the expansion for the high-temperature Maxwell-Boltzmann and zero-temperature Thomas-Fermi gases in the Hartree-Fock and Landau-Vlasov approaches. In conclusion, we provide a proper approach to develop the time-of-flight method for the weakly-interacting dipolar Fermi gas and also reveal a scaling law associated with the Liouville's theorem in the long-time behaviors of the both gases.

Abstract:
We develop a meanfield treatment of a polarized trapped Fermi gas with dipole-dipole interactions. Our approach is based on self-consistent semiclassical Hartree-Fock theory that accounts for direct and exchange interactions. We discuss our procedure for numerically implementing the calculation. We study the thermodynamic and the first and second order correlation properties of the system. We find that the system entropy depends on the trap geometry, allowing the system to be cooled as the trap aspect ratio is increased, and that exchange interactions cause the correlation functions to be anisotropic in the low temperature regime. We also find that many uniform gas thermodynamic predictions, for which direct interaction effects vanish, are qualitatively unreliable for trapped systems, most notably for oblate traps. We develop a simplified Hartree formalism that is applicable to anisotropic harmonic traps.

Abstract:
We present a superfluid theory of a polarized dipolar Fermi gas. For two dipolar molecules each of which consists of two atoms with positive charge and negative charge, we derive an effective dipole-dipole pairing interaction. Using this pairing interaction, we show that the resulting BCS gap equation is not suffered from the well-known ultraviolet divergence, so that one can quantitatively predict superfluid properties of a dipolar Fermi gas. Using this cutoff-free superfluid theory, we examine the symmetry of the superfluid order parameter at T=0. We also discuss the deformation of the Fermi surface, originating from the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interaction.

Abstract:
We investigate the dynamical properties of a trapped finite-temperature normal Fermi gas with dipole-dipole interaction. For the free expansion dynamics, we show that the expanded gas always becomes stretched along the direction of the dipole moment. In addition, we present the temperature and interaction dependences of the asymptotical aspect ratio. We further study the collapse dynamics of the system by suddenly increasing the dipolar interaction strength. We show that, in contrast to the anisotropic collapse of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, a dipolar Fermi gas always collapses isotropically when the system becomes globally unstable. We also explore the interaction and temperature dependences for the frequencies of the low-lying collective excitations.