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 P. Mészáros Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2014.10.028 Abstract: I review gamma-ray burst models (GRBs) and observations, and discuss the possible production of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos in both the standard internal shock models and the newer generation of photospheric and hadronic GRB models, in the light of current constraints imposed by IceCube, Auger and TA observations. I then discuss models that have been proposed to explain the recent astrophysical PeV neutrino observations, including star-forming and star-burst galaxies, hypernovae and galaxy accretion and merger shocks.
 High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.083009 Abstract: The origin of the ultrahigh-energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs) from the second knee ($\sim6\times10^{17}$eV) above in the CR spectrum is still unknown. Recently, there has been growing evidence that a peculiar type of supernovae, called hypernovae, are associated with sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), such as SN1998bw/GRB980425 and SN2003lw/GRB031203. Such hypernovae appear to have high (up to mildly relativistic) velocity ejecta, which may be linked to the sub-energetic GRBs. Assuming a continuous distribution of the kinetic energy of the hypernova ejecta as a function of its velocity $E_k\propto (\Gamma\beta)^{-\alpha}$ with $\alpha\sim 2$, we find that 1) the external shock wave produced by the high velocity ejecta of a hypernova can accelerate protons up to energies as high as $10^{19} {\rm eV}$; 2) the cosmological hypernova rate is sufficient to account for the energy flux above the second knee; and 3) the steeper spectrum of CRs at these energies can arise in these sources. In addition, hypernovae would also give rise to a faint diffuse UHE neutrino flux, due to $p\gamma$ interactions of the UHE CRs with hypernova optical-UV photons.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1142/S0218271809015369 Abstract: Ultra high energy cosmic ray events presently show a spectrum, which we interpret here as galactic cosmic rays due to a starburst in the radio galaxy Cen A pushed up in energy by the shock of a relativistic jet. The knee feature and the particles with energy immediately higher in galactic cosmic rays then turn into the bulk of ultra high energy cosmic rays. This entails that all ultra high energy cosmic rays are heavy nuclei. This picture is viable if the majority of the observed ultra high energy events come from the radio galaxy Cen A, and are scattered by intergalactic magnetic fields across most of the sky.
 V. Berezinsky Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(98)00463-0 Abstract: The current status of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) is reviewed, with emphasis given to theoretical interpretation of the observed events. The galactic and extragalactic origin, in case of astrophysical sources of UHE particles, have the problems either with acceleration to the observed energies or with the fluxes and spectra. Topological defects can naturally produce particles with energies as observed and much higher, but in most cases fail to produce the observed fluxes. Cosmic necklaces and monopole-antimonopole pairs are identified as most plausible sources, which can provide the observed flux and spectrum. The relic superheavy particles are shown to be clustering in the Galactic halo, producing UHECR without Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff. The Lightest Supersymmetric Particles are discussed as UHE carriers in the Universe.
 Pasquale Blasi Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20135301002 Abstract: The wealth of data collected in the last few years thanks to the Pierre Auger Observatory and recently to the Telescope Array made the problem of the origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays a genuinely experimental/observational one. The apparently contradictory results provided by these experiments in terms of spectrum, chemical composition and anisotropies do not allow to reach any final conclusions as yet. Here I will discuss some of the theoretical challenges imposed by these data: in particular I will discuss some issues related to the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays and how the different models confront our understanding of Galactic cosmic rays in terms of supernova remnants paradigm. I will also discuss the status of theories aiming at describing acceleration of cosmic rays to the highest energies in relativistic shocks and unipolar inductors.
 Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/430099 Abstract: We explore acceleration of ions in the Quark Nova (QN) scenario, where a neutron star experiences an explosive phase transition into a quark star (born in the propeller regime). In this picture, two cosmic ray components are isolated: one related to the randomized pulsar wind and the other to the propelled wind, both boosted by the ultra-relativistic Quark Nova shock. The latter component acquires energies $10^{15} {\rm eV} 10^{18.6}$ eV. The composition is dominated by ions present in the pulsar wind in the energy range above $10^{18.6}$ eV, while at energies below $10^{18}$ eV the propelled ejecta, consisting of the fall-back neutron star crust material from the explosion, is the dominant one. Added to these two components, the propeller injects relativistic particles with Lorentz factors $\Gamma_{\rm prop.} \sim 1-1000$, later to be accelerated by galactic supernova shocks. The QN model appears to be able to account for the extragalactic cosmic rays above the ankle and to contribute a few percent of the galactic cosmic rays below the ankle. We predict few hundred ultra-high energy cosmic ray events above $10^{19}$ eV for the Pierre Auger detector per distant QN, while some thousands are predicted for the proposed EUSO and OWL detectors.
 R. Smida Physics , 2010, Abstract: The measurement of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an unique way to study article interactions at energies which are well above the capability of current accelerators. Significant progress in this field has occurred during last years, particularly due to the measurements made at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The important results which were achieved during last years are described here. Also future plans for the study of cosmic rays are presented.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3621795 Abstract: Understanding the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays is a crucial step in probing new physics at energies unattainable by terrestrial accelerators. Their sources remain an enigma half a century after their discovery. They must be accelerated in the local universe as otherwise interaction with cosmic background radiations would severely deplete the flux of protons and nuclei at energies above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) limit. Hypernovae, nearby GRBs, AGNs and their flares have all been suggested and debated in the literature as possible sources. Type Ibc supernovae have a local sub-population with mildly relativistic ejecta which are known to be sub-energetic GRBs or X-Ray Flashes for sometime and more recently as those with radio afterglows but without detected GRB counterparts, such as SN 2009bb. In this work we measure the size-magnetic field evolution, baryon loading and energetics of SN 2009bb using its radio spectra obtained with VLA and GMRT. We show that the engine-driven SNe lie above the Hillas line and they can explain the characteristics of post-GZK UHECRs.
 Physics , 2009, Abstract: Diffusive shock acceleration is invoked to explain non-thermal particle acceleration in Supernova Remnants, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) Jets, Gamma ray Bursts (GRBs) and various large scale cosmic structures. The importance of achieving the highest observed particle energies by such a mechanism in a given astrophysical situation is a recurring theme. In this work, shock acceleration in relativistic shocks is discussed, mostly focusing on a numerical study concerning proton acceleration efficiency by subluminal and superluminal shocks, emphasising on the dependence of the scattering model, bulk Lorentz factor and the angle between the magnetic field and the shock flow. We developed a diffuse cosmic ray model based on the study of different shock boost factors, which shows that spectra from AGN fit current observations of ultra high energy cosmic rays, above 5.7 x 10^10 GeV, much better than GRBs, indicating that AGN are the primary candidates to explain the UHECR flux. Recent Fermi observations of GRB090816c indicate very flat spectra which are expected within our model predictions and support evidence that GRB particle spectra can be flat, when the shock Lorentz factor is of order ~1000.
 Physics , 2001, Abstract: We study spectra of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays assuming primaries are protons and photons, and that their sources are extragalactic. We assume power low for the injection spectra and take into account the influence of cosmic microwave, infrared, optical and radio backgrounds as well as extragalactic magnetic fields on propagation of primaries. Our additional free parameters are the maximum energy of injected particles and the distance to the nearest source. We find a parameter range where the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off is avoided.
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