Abstract:
Motivated by ideas about quantum gravity, a tremendous amount of effort over the past decade has gone into testing Lorentz invariance in various regimes. This review summarizes both the theoretical frameworks for tests of Lorentz invariance and experimental advances that have made new high precision tests possible. The current constraints on Lorentz violating effects from both terrestrial experiments and astrophysical observations are presented.

Abstract:
Motivated by ideas about quantum gravity, a tremendous amount of effort over the past decade has gone into testing Lorentz invariance in various regimes. This review summarizes both the theoretical frameworks for tests of Lorentz invariance and experimental advances that have made new high precision tests possible. The current constraints on Lorentz violating effects from both terrestrial experiments and astrophysical observations are presented.

Abstract:
We present an updated review of Lorentz invariance tests in Effective field theories (EFT) in the matter as well as in the gravity sector. After a general discussion of the role of Lorentz invariance and a derivation of its transformations along the so called von Ignatovski theorem, we present the dynamical frameworks developed within local EFT and the available constraints on the parameters governing the Lorentz breaking effects. In the end, we discuss two specific examples, the OPERA "affaire" and the case of Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity. The first case will serve as an example, and a caveat, of the practical application of the general techniques developed for constraining Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) to a direct observation potentially showing these effects. The second case will show how the application of the same techniques to a specific quantum gravity scenario has far fetching implications not foreseeable in a purely phenomenological EFT approach.

Abstract:
We present an updated review of Lorentz invariance tests in Effective field theories (EFT) in the matter as well as in the gravity sector. After a general discussion of the role of Lorentz invariance and a derivation of its transformations along the so called von Ignatovski theorem, we present the dynamical frameworks developed within local EFT and the available constraints on the parameters governing the Lorentz breaking effects. In the end, we discuss two specific examples, the OPERA "affaire" and the case of Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity. The first case will serve as an example, and a caveat, of the practical application of the general techniques developed for constraining Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) to a direct observation potentially showing these effects. The second case will show how the application of the same techniques to a specific quantum gravity scenario has far fetching implications not foreseeable in a purely phenomenological EFT approach.

Abstract:
Modern experiments on neutron and allowed nuclear $\beta$ decay search for new semileptonic interactions, beyond the ``left-handed'' electroweak force. We show that ongoing and planned $\beta$-decay experiments, with isotopes at rest and in flight, can be exploited as sensitive tests of Lorentz invariance. The variety of correlations that involve the nuclear spin, the direction of the emitted $\beta$ particle, and the recoil direction of the daughter nucleus allow for relatively simple experiments that give direct bounds on Lorentz violation. The pertinent observables are decay-rate asymmetries and their dependence on sidereal time. We discuss the potential of several asymmetries that together cover a large part of the parameter space for Lorentz violation in the gauge sector. High counting statistics is required.

Abstract:
We discuss the prospects of doing tests of Lorentz invariance with gamma-rays observed with present and future ground based gamma-ray observatories.

Abstract:
New tests are proposed to constrain possible deviations from local Lorentz invariance and local position invariance in the gravity sector. By using precise timing results of two binary pulsars, i.e., PSRs J1012+5307 and J1738+0333, we are able to constrain (strong-field) parametrized post-Newtonian parameters $\hat{\alpha}_1$, $\hat{\alpha}_2$, $\hat{\xi}$ to high precision, among which, $|\hat{\xi}| < 3.1\times10^{-4}$ (95% C.L.) is reported here for the first time.

Abstract:
We develop a perturbative framework with which to discuss departures from exact Lorentz invariance and explore their potentially observable ramifications. Tiny non-invariant terms introduced into the standard model Lagrangian are assumed to be renormalizable (dimension $\le 4$), invariant under $SU(3)\otimes SU(2)\otimes U(1)$ gauge transformations, and rotationally and translationally invariant in a preferred frame. There are a total of 46 independent TCP-even perturbations of this kind, all of which preserve anomaly cancellation. They define the energy-momentum eigenstates and their maximal attainable velocities in the high-energy limit. The effects of these perturbations increase rapidly with energy in the preferred frame, more rapidly than those of TCP-odd perturbations. Our analysis of Lorentz-violating kinematics reveals several striking new phenomena that are relevant both to cosmic-ray physics ({\it e.g.,} by undoing the GZK cutoff) and neutrino physics ({\it e.g.,} by generating novel types of neutrino oscillations). These may lead to new and sensitive high-energy tests of special relativity.

Abstract:
Multi-TeV spectra of Mkn 501 and other BL Lac objects exhibit the high energy cutoffs predicted to be the result of intergalactic annihilation interactions, primarily with IR photons having the flux level determined by various astrophysical observations. After correcting for such intergalactic absorption, these spectra can be explained within the framework of synchrotron self-Compton emission models. Stecker and Glashow have shown that the existence of this annihilation via electron-positron pair production puts strong constriants on Lorentz invariance violation. Such constriants have important implications for some quantum gravity and large extra dimension models. A much smaller amount of Lorentz invariance violation has potential implications for understanding the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays.

Abstract:
The frequencies of a cryogenic sapphire oscillator and a hydrogen maser are compared to set new constraints on a possible violation of Lorentz invariance. We give a detailed description of microwave resonators operating in Whispering Gallery modes and then apply it to derive explicit models for Lorentz violating effects in our experiment. Models are calculated in the theoretical framework of Robertson, Mansouri and Sexl and in the standard model extension (SME) of Kostelecky and co-workers. We constrain the parameters of the Mansouri and Sexl test theory to $1/2 - \beta_{MS} + \delta_{MS} = (1.2 \pm 2.2) \times 10^{-9}$ and $\beta_{MS} - \alpha_{MS} - 1 = (1.6 \pm 3.0) \times 10^{-7}$ which is of the same order as the best results from other experiments for the former and represents a 70 fold improvement for the latter. These results correspond to an improvement of our previously published limits [Wolf P. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 90}, 6, 060402, (2003)] by about a factor 2.