Abstract:
We analyse photoionisation and ion detection as a means of accurately counting ultra-cold atoms. We show that it is possible to count clouds containing many thousands of atoms with accuracies better than $N^{-1/2}$ with current technology. This allows the direct probing of sub-Poissonian number statistics of atomic samples. The scheme can also be used for efficient single atom detection with high spatio-temporal resolution. All aspects of a realistic detection scheme are considered, and we discuss experimental situations in which such a scheme could be implemented.

Abstract:
We present a concise review of the physics of ultra-cold dipolar gases, based mainly on the theoretical developments in our own group. First, we discuss shortly weakly interacting ultra-cold trapped dipolar gases. Dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates exhibit non-standard instabilities and the physics of both Bose and Fermi dipolar gases depends on the trap geometry. We focus then the second part of the paper on strongly correlated dipolar gases and discuss ultra-cold dipolar gases in optical lattices. Such gases exhibit a spectacular richness of quantum phases and metastable states, which may perhaps be used as quantum memories. We comment shortly on the possibility of superchemistry aiming at the creation of dipolar heteronuclear molecules in lattices. Finally, we turn to ultra-cold dipolar gases in artificial magnetic fields, and consider rotating dipolar gases, that provide in our opinion the best option towards the realization of the fractional quantum Hall effect and quantum Wigner crystals.

Abstract:
This is a review of recent developments in Monte Carlo methods in the field of ultra cold gases. For bosonic atoms in an optical lattice we discuss path integral Monte Carlo simulations with worm updates and show the excellent agreement with cold atom experiments. We also review recent progress in simulating bosonic systems with long-range interactions, disordered bosons, mixtures of bosons, and spinful bosonic systems. For repulsive fermionic systems determinantal methods at half filling are sign free, but in general no sign-free method exists. We review the developments in diagrammatic Monte Carlo for the Fermi polaron problem and the Hubbard model, and show the connection with dynamical mean-field theory. We end the review with diffusion Monte Carlo for the Stoner problem in cold gases.

Abstract:
Motivated by recent experiments [Lin {\it et al.}, Nature {\bf 417}, 83 (2011)] that engineered spin-orbit coupling in ultra-cold mixtures of bosonic atoms, we study the dipole oscillation of trapped spin-orbit-coupled non-condensed Bose and Fermi gases. We find that different directions of oscillation are coupled by the spin-orbit interactions. The phase difference between oscillatory motion in orthogonal directions and the trapping frequencies of the modes are shown to be related to the anomalous Hall conductivity. Our results can be used to experimentally determine the anomalous Hall conductivity for cold-atom systems.

Abstract:
We study the equilibrium current density profiles of harmonically trapped ultra-cold Fermi gases in quantum Hall-like states that appear when the quasi-two-dimensional trap is set in fast rotation. The density profile of the gas (in the rotating reference frame) consists of incompressible strips of constant quantized density separated by compressible regions in which the density varies. Remarkably, we find that the atomic currents flow in opposite directions in the compressible and incompressible regions -- a prediction that should be amenable to experimental verification.

Abstract:
Recently three dimensional topological quantum materials with gapless energy spectra have attracted considerable interests in many branches of physics. Besides the celebrated example, Dirac and Weyl points which possess gapless point structures in the underlying energy dispersion, the topologically protected gapless spectrum can also occur along a ring, named Dirac and Weyl nodal rings. Ultra-cold atomic gases provide an ideal platform for exploring new topological materials with designed symmetries. However, whether Dirac and Weyl rings can exist in the single-particle spectrum of cold atoms remains elusive. Here we propose a realistic model for realizing Dirac and Weyl rings in the single-particle band dispersion of a cold atom optical lattice. Our scheme is based on previously experimentally already implemented Raman coupling setup for realizing spin-orbit coupling. Without the Zeeman field, the model preserves both pseudo-time-reversal and inversion symmetries, allowing Dirac rings. The Dirac rings split into Weyl rings with a Zeeman field that breaks the pseudo-time-reversal symmetry. We examine the superfluidity of attractive Fermi gases in this model and also find Dirac and Weyl rings in the quasiparticle spectrum.

Abstract:
We discuss ultra-cold Fermi gases in two dimensions, which could be realized in a strongly confining one-dimensional optical lattice. We obtain the temperature versus effective interaction phase diagram for an s-wave superfluid and show that, below a certain critical temperature T_c, spontaneous vortex-antivortex pairs appear for all coupling strengths. In addition, we show that the evolution from weak to strong coupling is smooth, and that the system forms a square vortex-antivortex lattice at a lower critical temperature T_M.

Abstract:
The recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) for ultra-cold atoms opens a completely new avenue for exploring new quantum matter. In experiments, the SOC is implemented simultaneously with a Zeeman field. Such spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases are predicted to support Majorana fermions with non-Abelian exchange statistics in one dimension (1D). However, as shown in recent theory and experiments for 1D spin-imbalanced Fermi gases, the Zeeman field can lead to the long-sought Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) superfluids with non-zero momentum Cooper pairings, in contrast to the zero momentum pairing in Majorana superfluids. Therefore a natural question to ask is which phase, FFLO or Majorana superfluids, will survive in spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases in the presence of a large Zeeman field. In this paper, we address this question by studying the mean field quantum phases of 1D (quasi-1D) spin-orbit coupled fermionic cold atom optical lattices.

Abstract:
We have studied the interference of degenerate quantum gases in a vertical optical lattice. The coherence of the atoms leads to an interference pattern when the atoms are released from the lattice. This has been shown for a Bose-Einstein condensate in early experiments. Here we demonstrate that also for fermions an interference pattern can be observed provided that the momentum distribution is smaller then the recoil momentum of the lattice. Special attention is given to the role of interactions which wash out the interference pattern for a condensate but do not affect a spin polarized Fermi gas, where collisions at ultra cold temperatures are forbidden. Comparing the interference of the two quantum gases we find a clear superiority of fermions for trapped atom interferometry.

Abstract:
We show how Fermi liquid theory can be applied to ultra-cold Fermi gases, thereby expanding their "simulation" capabilities to a class of problems of interest to multiple physics sub-disciplines. We introduce procedures for measuring and calculating position dependent Landau parameters. This lays the ground work for addressing important controversial issues: (i) the suggestion that thermodynamically, the normal state of a unitary gas is indistinguishable from a Fermi liquid (ii) that a fermionic system with strong repulsive contact interactions is associated with either ferromagnetism or localization; this relates as well to $^3$He and its p-wave superfluidity.