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Superfluid and Pseudo-Goldstone Modes in Three Flavor Crystalline Color Superconductivity
Anglani, R.;Gatto, R.;Ippolito, N. D.;Nardulli, G.;Ruggieri, M.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.054007
Abstract: We study the bosonic excitations in the favorite cubic three flavor crystalline LOFF phases of QCD. We calculate in the Ginzburg-Landau approximation the masses of the eight pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons (NGB) present in the low energy theory. We also compute the decay constants of the massless NGB Goldstones associated to superfluidity as well as those of the eight pseudo NGB. Differently from the corresponding situation in the Color-Flavor-Locking phase, we find that meson condensation phases are not expected in the present scenario.
Masses of the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons in two flavor color superconducting phase  [PDF]
V. A. Miransky,I. A. Shovkovy,L. C. R. Wijewardhana
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.64.096002
Abstract: The masses of the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons in the color superconducting phase of dense QCD with two light flavors are estimated by making use of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective action. Parametrically, the masses of the doublet and antidoublet bosons are suppressed by a power of the coupling constant as compared to the value of the superconducting gap. This is qualitatively different from the mass expression for the singlet pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, resulting from non-perturbative effects. It is argued that the (anti-) doublet pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons form colorless [with respect to the unbroken SU(2)_{c}] charmonium-like bound states. The corresponding binding energy is also estimated.
Anisotropic Propagator for the Goldstone Modes in Color-flavor Locked Phase in the Presence of a Magnetic Field  [PDF]
Srimoyee Sen
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.025004
Abstract: We consider the phase diagram of QCD at very high baryon density and at zero temperature in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The state of matter at such high densities and low temperatures is believed to be a phase known as the color-flavor locked phase which breaks color and electromagnetic gauge invariance leaving a linear combination of them unbroken. Of the 9 quarks (three flavors and three colors), five are neutral under this unbroken generator and four are oppositely charged. In the presence of a magnetic field corresponding to the unbroken generator however, the properties of the condensate changes and a new phase known as the magnetic color flavor locked (MCFL)phase is realized. This phase breaks some of the color-flavor symmetry of the Lagrangian spontaneously, giving rise to 6 Goldstone modes, 5 of which are pseudo Goldstone modes. These Goldstone modes are composed of excitations that correspond to both neutral quarks and charged quarks. Hence it is natural to expect that the propagators of these Goldstone modes get affected in the presence of a magnetic field and their speed becomes considerably anisotropic. Although this anisotropy is self-evident from symmetry arguments, it has not been quantified yet. We calculate this anisotropy in the speed of the Goldstone modes using an NJL model type of interaction between the quarks and comment on the impact of such anisotropic modes on the transport properties of the MCFL phase.
Production of neutral pseudo-Goldstone bosons at LEP II and NLC in multiscale walking technicolor models  [PDF]
Vittorio Lubicz,Pietro Santorelli
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1016/0550-3213(95)00644-3
Abstract: Walking technicolor (WTC) models predict the existence of heavy neutral pseudo-Goldstone bosons (PGBs), whose masses are typically expected to be larger than 100 GeV. In this paper, we investigate the production and decay of these particles at the high energy e^+ e^- experiments, LEP II and NLC. We find that, in WTC models, the production of neutral PGBs can be significantly enhanced, by one or two orders of magnitude, with respect to the predictions of traditional (QCD-like) TC models. The origin of such an enhancement is the existence of several low energy TC scales, that are likely to appear in WTC theories. This could allow the PGBs to be observed even at the energy and luminosity of the LEP II experiment. At LEP II, the PGBs are expected to be produced in the e^+ e^- ==> P \gamma channel, and, possibly, in the e^+ e^- ==> P e^+ e^- channel, with a total rate that can be of the order of several tenths per year. Due to the typical large values of PGB masses, the relative branching ratios of PGB decays, in WTC theories, are different from those predicted in traditional TC models. In particular, a large fraction of these decays can occur in the P ==> \gamma \gamma channel. In considering the PGB production, at LEP II, we find that, in most of the final states, the distinctive signatures of WTC events should allow the Standard Model background to be reduced to a negligible level. We also find that, at a 500 GeV NLC experiment, the production of neutral PGBs can occur in several channels, and can be of the order of 10^3 events per year. Instead, when we consider traditional TC models, we find that no PGB are typically predicted to be observed, both at LEP II and the NLC experiment.
Chromomagnetic Instability and Induced Magnetic Field in Neutral Two-Flavor Color Superconductivity
Ferrer, Efrain J.;de la Incera, Vivian
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.114012
Abstract: We find that the chromomagnetic instability existing in neutral two- flavor color superconductivity at moderate densities is removed by the formation of an inhomogeneous condensate of charged gluons and the corresponding induction of a magnetic field. It is shown that this inhomogeneous ground state is energetically favored over a homogeneous one. The spontaneous induction of a magnetic field in a color superconductor at moderate densities can be of interest for the astrophysics of compact stellar objects exhibiting strong magnetic fields as magnetars.
Chromomagnetic Instability and Induced Magnetic Field in Neutral Two-Flavor Color Superconductivity  [PDF]
Efrain J. Ferrer,Vivian de la Incera
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.114012
Abstract: We find that the chromomagnetic instability existing in neutral two- flavor color superconductivity at moderate densities is removed by the formation of an inhomogeneous condensate of charged gluons and the corresponding induction of a magnetic field. It is shown that this inhomogeneous ground state is energetically favored over a homogeneous one. The spontaneous induction of a magnetic field in a color superconductor at moderate densities can be of interest for the astrophysics of compact stellar objects exhibiting strong magnetic fields as magnetars.
Neutral Color Superconductivity Including Inhomogeneous Phases at Finite Temperature  [PDF]
Lianyi He,Meng Jin,Pengfei Zhuang
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.75.036003
Abstract: We investigate neutral quark matter with homogeneous and inhomogeneous color condensates at finite temperature in the frame of an extended NJL model. By calculating the Meissner masses squared and gap susceptibility, the uniform color superconductor is stable only in a temperature window close to the critical temperature and becomes unstable against LOFF phase, mixed phase and gluonic phase at low temperatures. The introduction of the inhomogeneous phases leads to disappearance of the strange intermediate temperature 2SC/g2SC and changes the phase diagram of neutral dense quark matter significantly.
Chiral symmetry breaking, color superconductivity and color neutral quark matter: a variational approach  [PDF]
Amruta Mishra,Hiranmaya Mishra
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.69.014014
Abstract: We investigate the vacuum realignment for chiral symmetry breaking and color superconductivity at finite density in Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in a variational method. The treatment allows us to investigate simultaneous formation of condensates in quark antiquark as well as in diquark channels. The methodology involves an explicit construction of a variational ground state and minimisation of the thermodynamic potential. Color and electric charge neutrality conditions are imposed through introduction of appropriate chemical potentials. Color and flavor dependent condensate functions are determined through minimisation of the thermodynamic potential. The equation of state is calculated. Simultaneous existence of a mass gap and superconducting gap is seen in a small window of quark chemical potential within the model when charge neutrality conditions are not imposed. Enforcing color and electric charge neutrality conditions gives rise to existence of gapless superconducting modes depending upon the magnitude of the gap and the difference of the chemical potentials of the condensing quarks.
Two lectures on color superconductivity  [PDF]
Igor A. Shovkovy
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1007/s10701-005-6440-x
Abstract: The first lecture provides an introduction to the physics of color superconductivity in cold dense quark matter. The main color superconducting phases are briefly described and their properties are listed. The second lecture covers recent developments in studies of color superconducting phases in neutral and beta-equilibrated matter. The properties of gapless color superconducting phases are discussed.
Color Superconductivity  [PDF]
Thomas Schaefer
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1142/S0217979201005969
Abstract: We discuss recent results on color superconductivity in QCD at large chemical potential.
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