Abstract:
In this paper we reconsider the constraints which are imposed by relativistic requirements to any model of dynamical reduction. We review the debate on the subject and we call attention on the fundamental contributions by Aharonov and Albert. Having done this we present a new formulation, which is much simpler and more apt for our analysis, of the proposal put forward by these authors to perform measurements of nonlocal observables by means of local interactions and detections. We take into account recently proposed relativistic models of dynamical reduction and we show that, in spite of some mathematical difficulties related to the appearence of divergences, they represent a perfectly appropriate conceptual framework which meets all necessary requirements for a relativistic account of wave packet reduction. Subtle questions like the appropriate way to deal with counterfactual reasoning in a relativistic and nonlocal context are also analyzed in detail.

Abstract:
For a general multipartite quantum state, we formulate a locally checkable condition, under which the expectation values of certain nonlocal observables are completely determined by the expectation values of some local observables. The condition is satisfied by ground states of gapped quantum many-body systems in two spatial dimensions, assuming a widely conjectured form of area law is correct. Its implications on the studies of gapped quantum many-body systems, quantum state tomography, and quantum state verification are discussed. These results are based on a partial characterization of states with small yet nonzero conditional mutual information, which may be of independent interest.

Abstract:
Using a recent classification of local symmetries of the vacuum Einstein equations, it is shown that there can be no observables for the vacuum gravitational field (in a closed universe) built as spatial integrals of local functions of Cauchy data and their derivatives.

Abstract:
Exploiting the properties of the Jost-Lehmann-Dyson representation, it is shown that in 1+2 or more spacetime dimensions, a nonempty smallest localization region can be associated with each local observable (except for the c-numbers) in a theory of local observables in the sense of Araki, Haag, and Kastler. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given that observables with spacelike separated localization regions commute (locality of the net alone does not yet imply this).

Abstract:
Recent results by Spitters et. al. suggest that quantum phase space can usefully be regarded as a ringed topos via a process called Bohrification. They show that quantum kinematics can then be interpreted as classical kinematics, internal to this ringed topos. We extend these ideas from quantum mechanics to algebraic quantum field theory: from a net of observables we construct a presheaf of quantum phase spaces. We can then naturally express the causal locality of the net as a descent condition on the corresponding presheaf of ringed toposes: we show that the net of observables is local, precisely when the presheaf of ringed toposes satisfies descent by a local geometric morphism.

Abstract:
We present an explicit construction of entanglement witnesses for depolarized states in arbitrary finite dimension. For infinite dimension we generalize the construction to twin-beams perturbed by Gaussian noises in the phase and in the amplitude of the field. We show that entanglement detection for all these families of states requires only three local measurements. The explicit form of the corresponding set of local observables (quorom) needed for entanglement witness is derived.

Abstract:
Quantum estimation theory provides optimal observations for various estimation problems for unknown parameters in the state of the system under investigation. However, the theory has been developed under the assumption that every observable is available for experimenters. Here, we generalize the theory to problems in which the experimenter can use only locally accessible observables. For such problems, we establish a Cram{\'e}r-Rao type inequality by obtaining an explicit form of the Fisher information as a reciprocal lower bound for the mean square errors of estimations by locally accessible observables. Furthermore, we explore various local quantum estimation problems for composite systems, where non-trivial combinatorics is needed for obtaining the Fisher information.

Abstract:
A standard approach in the foundations of quantum mechanics studies local realism and hidden variables models exclusively in terms of violations of Bell-like inequalities. Thus quantum nonlocality is tied to the celebrated no-go theorems, and these comprise a long list that includes the Kochen-Specker and Bell theorems, as well as elegant refinements by Mermin, Peres, Hardy, GHZ, and many others. Typically entanglement or carefully prepared multipartite systems have been considered essential for violations of local realism and for understanding quantum nonlocality. Here we show, to the contrary, that sharp violations of local realism arise almost everywhere without entanglement. The pivotal fact driving these violations is just the noncommutativity of quantum observables. We demonstrate how violations of local realism occur for arbitrary noncommuting projectors, and for arbitrary quantum pure states. Finally, we point to elementary tests for local realism, using single particles and without reference to entanglement, thus avoiding experimental loopholes and efficiency issues that continue to bedevil the Bell inequality related tests.

Abstract:
Local or nonlocal character of quantum states can be quantified and is subject to various bounds that can be formulated as complementarity relations. Here, we investigate the local vs. nonlocal character of pure three-qubit states by a four-way interferometer. The complete entanglement in the system can be measured as the entanglement of a specific qubit with the subsystem consisting of the other two qubits. The quantitative complementarity relations are verified experimentally in an NMR quantum information processor.

Abstract:
It is well known that general relativity (GR) does not possess any non-trivial local (in a precise standard sense) and diffeomorphism invariant observables. We propose a generalized notion of local observables, which retain the most important properties that follow from the standard definition of locality, yet is flexible enough to admit a large class of diffeomorphism invariant observables in GR. The generalization comes at a small price, that the domain of definition of a generalized local observable may not cover the entire phase space of GR and two such observables may have distinct domains. However, the subset of metrics on which generalized local observables can be defined is in a sense generic (its open interior is non-empty in the Whitney strong topology). Moreover, generalized local gauge invariant observables are sufficient to separate diffeomorphism orbits on this admissible subset of the phase space. Connecting the construction with the notion of differential invariants, gives a general scheme for defining generalized local gauge invariant observables in arbitrary gauge theories, which happens to agree with well-known results for Maxwell and Yang-Mills theories.