Abstract:
We show that for rotating harmonically trapped Bose gases in a fractional quantum Hall state, the anyonic excitation statistics in the rotating gas can effectively play a {\em dynamical} role. For particular values of the two-dimensional coupling constant $g = -2\pi \hbar^2 (2k-1)/m$, where $k$ is a positive integer, the system becomes a noninteracting gas of anyons, with exactly obtainable solutions satisfying Bogomol'nyi self-dual order parameter equations. Attractive Bose gases under rapid rotation thus can be stabilized in the thermodynamic limit due to the anyonic statistics of their quasiparticle excitations.

Abstract:
We comment on the work of Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160403 (2004). Contrary to the claim in the letter, we argue that the anyonic excitation statistics does not play any dynamical role in stabilizing attractive bose gases under rapid rotation in a fractional quantum Hall state. We also point out that the assertion of obtaining exact solutions of the self-dual equation that saturates the Bogomol'nyi bound is invalid for non-zero external field.

Abstract:
The edge excitations and related topological orders of correlated states of a fast rotating Bose gas are studied. Using exact diagonalization of small systems, we compute the energies and number of edge excitations, as well as the boson occupancy near the edge for various states. The chiral Luttinger-liquid theory of Wen is found to be a good description of the edges of the bosonic Laughlin and other states identified as members of the principal Jain sequence for bosons. However, we find that in a harmonic trap the edge of the state identified as the Moore-Read (Pfaffian) state shows a number of anomalies. An experimental way of detecting these correlated states is also discussed.

Abstract:
We study the groundstates of rotating Bose gases when interactions are affected by a nearby Feshbach resonance. We show that exact groundstates at high angular momentum can be found analytically for a general and realistic model for the resonant interactions. We identify parameter regimes where the exact groundstates are exotic fractional quantum Hall states, the excitations of which obey non-abelian exchange statistics.

Abstract:
Ultracold atomic gases can be spined up either by confining them in rotating frame, or by introducing ``synthetic" magnetic field. In this paper, thermodynamics of rotating ideal Bose gases are investigated within truncated-summation approach which keeps to take into account the discrete nature of energy levels, rather than to approximate the summation over single-particle energy levels by an integral as does in semi-classical approximation. Our results show that Bose gases in rotating frame exhibit much stronger dependence on rotation frequency than those in ``synthetic" magnetic field. Consequently, BEC can be more easily suppressed in rotating frame than in ``synthetic" magnetic field.

Abstract:
Novel ground state properties of rotating Bose gases have been intensively studied in the context of neutral cold atoms. We investigate the rotating Bose gas in a trap from a thermodynamic perspective, taking the charged ideal Bose gas in magnetic field (which is equivalent to a neutral gas in a synthetic magnetic field) as an example. It is indicated that the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature is irrelevant to the magnetic field, conflicting with established intuition that the critical temperature decreases with the field increasing. The specific heat and Landau diamagnetization also exhibit intriguing behaviors. In contrast, we demonstrate that the condensation temperature for neutral Bose gases in a rotating frame drops to zero in the fast rotation limit, signaling a non-condensed quantum phase in the ground state.

Abstract:
We consider a system of trapped spinless bosons interacting with a repulsive potential and subject to rotation. In the limit of rapid rotation and small scattering length, we rigorously show that the ground state energy converges to that of a simplified model Hamiltonian with contact interaction projected onto the Lowest Landau Level. This effective Hamiltonian models the bosonic analogue of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). For a fixed number of particles, we also prove convergence of states; in particular, in a certain regime we show convergence towards the bosonic Laughlin wavefunction. This is the first rigorous justification of the effective FQHE Hamiltonian for rapidly rotating Bose gases. We review previous results on this effective Hamiltonian and outline open problems.

Abstract:
We prove that the Gross-Pitaevskii equation correctly describes the ground state energy and corresponding one-particle density matrix of rotating, dilute, trapped Bose gases with repulsive two-body interactions. We also show that there is 100% Bose-Einstein condensation. While a proof that the GP equation correctly describes non-rotating or slowly rotating gases was known for some time, the rapidly rotating case was unclear because the Bose (i.e., symmetric) ground state is not the lowest eigenstate of the Hamiltonian in this case. We have been able to overcome this difficulty with the aid of coherent states. Our proof also conceptually simplifies the previous proof for the slowly rotating case. In the case of axially symmetric traps, our results show that the appearance of quantized vortices causes spontaneous symmetry breaking in the ground state.

Abstract:
A new method is developed to calculate all excitations of trapped gases using hydrodynamics at zero temperature for any equation of state $\mu=\mu(n)$ and for any trapping potential. It is shown that a natural scalar product can be defined for the mode functions, by which the wave operator is hermitian and the mode functions are orthogonal. It is also shown that the Kohn-modes are exact for harmonic trapping in hydrodynamic theory. Excitations for fermions are calculated in the BCS-BEC transition region using the equation of state of the mean-field Leggett-model for isotrop harmonic trap potential.

Abstract:
We apply the magneto-roton theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect to study the collective excitation spectrum of rotating dipolar Fermi gases. The predicted spectrum has a finite energy gap in the long wavelength limit and a roton minimum at finite wave vector. The roton minimum being deepened from filling factor 1/3 to filling factor 1/5 is a signature of incipient crystallization near filling factor 1/7. We also demonstrate that there are no low-lying single-particle excitations below the roton mode. The fractional-quantum-Hall fluid rotating dipolar fermions behaves as an incompressible superfluid at low temperature.