Abstract:
We study the capacity of d-dimensional quantum channels with memory modeled by correlated noise. We show that, in agreement with previous results on Pauli qubit channels, there are situations where maximally entangled input states achieve higher values of mutual information than product states. Moreover, a strong dependence of this effect on the nature of the noise correlations as well as on the parity of the space dimension is found. We conjecture that when entanglement gives an advantage in terms of mutual information, maximally entangled states saturate the channel capacity.

Abstract:
Transmission of quantum entanglement will play a crucial role in future networks and long-distance quantum communications. Quantum Key Distribution, the working mechanism of quantum repeaters and the various quantum communication protocols are all based on quantum entanglement. On the other hand, quantum entanglement is extremely fragile and sensitive to the noise of the communication channel over which it has been transmitted. To share entanglement between distant points, high fidelity quantum channels are needed. In practice, these communication links are noisy, which makes it impossible or extremely difficult and expensive to distribute entanglement. In this work we first show that quantum entanglement can be generated by a new idea, exploiting the most natural effect of the communication channels: the noise itself of the link. We prove that the noise transformation of quantum channels that are not able to transmit quantum entanglement can be used to generate distillable (useable) entanglement from classically correlated input. We call this new phenomenon the Correlation Conversion property (CC-property) of quantum channels. The proposed solution does not require any non-local operation or local measurement by the parties, only the use of standard quantum channels. Our results have implications and consequences for the future of quantum communications, and for global-scale quantum communication networks. The discovery also revealed that entanglement generation by local operations is possible.

Abstract:
All communication channels are at bottom quantum mechanical. Quantum mechanics contributes both obstacles to communication in the form of noise, and opportunities in the use of intrinsically quantum representations for information. This paper investigates the trade-off between power and communication rate for coupled quantum channels. By exploiting quantum correlations such as entanglement, coupled quantum channels can communicate at a potentially higher rate than unentangled quantum channels given the same power. In particular, given the same overall power, M coupled, entangled quantum channels can send M bits in the same time it takes a single channel to send a single bit, and in the same time it takes M unentangled channels to send $\sqrt M$ bits.

Abstract:
Many different quantum information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding and entanglement based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is however hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order non-linearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne measurements and classical communication to distill the entanglement, and we find that by using this method the entanglement can be probabilistically increased for some specific non-Gaussian noise channels.

Abstract:
Motivated by the results of C. Macchiavello and G. M. Palma on entanglement-enhanced information transmission over a quantum channel with correlated noise, we demonstrate how the entanglement teleportation scheme of J. Lee and M. S. Kim gives rise to two uncorrelated generalized depolarizing channels. In an attempt to find a teleportation scheme which yields two correlated generalized depolarizing channels, we discover a novel teleportation scheme, which allows one to learn about the entanglement in an entangled pure input state, but without decreasing the amount of entanglement associated with it.

Abstract:
We suggest a method of entangling significantly the distant ends of a spin chain using minimal control. This entanglement between distant individual spins is brought about solely by exploiting the dynamics of an initial mixed state with Neel order if the lattice features nearest-neighbor XXZ interaction. There is no need to control single spins or to have engineered couplings or to pulse globally. The method only requires an initial nonadiabatic switch (a quench) between two Hamiltonians followed by an evolution under the second Hamiltonian. The scheme is robust to randomness of the couplings as well as the finiteness of an appropriate quench and could potentially be implemented in various experimental setups, ranging from atoms in optical lattices to Josephson-junction arrays.

Abstract:
Entanglement and entanglement-assisted are useful resources to enhance the mutual information of the Pauli channels, when the noise on consecutive uses of the channel has some partial correlations. In this paper, We study quantum communication channels with correlated noise and derive a general expression for the mutual information of quantum channel, for the product, maximally entangled state coding and entanglement-assisted systems with correlated noise in the Pauli quantum channels. Hence, we suggest more efficient coding in the entanglement-assisted systems for the transmission of classical information and derive a general expression for the entanglement-assisted classical capacity. Our results show that in the presence of memory, a higher amount of classical information is transmitted by two or four consecutive uses of entanglement-assisted systems.

Abstract:
Entanglement and entanglement-assisted are useful resources to enhance the mutual information of the Pauli channels, when the noise on consecutive uses of the channel has some partial correlations. In this Paper, we study quantum-communication channels in $d$-dimensional systems and derive the mutual information of the quantum channels for maximally entangled states and product states coding with correlated noise. Then, we compare fidelity between these states. Our results show that there exists a certain fidelity memory threshold which depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space $(d)$ and the properties of noisy channels. We calculate the classical capacity of a particular correlated noisy channel and show that in order to achieve Holevo limit, we must use $d$ particles with $d$ degrees of freedom. Our results show that entanglement is a useful means to enhance the mutual information. We choose a special non-maximally entangled state and show that in the quasi-classical depolarizing and quantum depolarizing channels, maximum classical capacity in the higher memory channels is given by the maximally entangled state. Hence, our results show that for high error channels in every degree of memory, maximally entangled states have better mutual information.

Abstract:
We investigate the dynamics of two qubits state through the Bloch channel. It is found that the degradation and sudden-death of the entanglement depend on the channel's parameters and the structure of the input state. Starting from partially entangled states as input state, the output states are more robust compared with those obtained from initial maximally entangled states. Also the survivability of entanglement increased as the absolute equilibrium values of the channel increased or the ratio between the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times gets smaller. Ability of using the output states as quantum channels to perform quantum teleportation is investigated. The idea that the useful output states are used to achieve the original quantum teleportation protocol is discussed.

Abstract:
We consider properties of states of many qubits, which arise after sending certain entangled states via various noisy channels (white noise, coloured noise, local depolarization, dephasing and amplitude damping). Entanglement of these states is studied and their ability to violate certain classes of Bell inequalities. States which violate them allow for higher than classical efficiency of solving related distributed computational tasks with constrained communication. This is a direct property of such states -- not requiring their further modification via stochastic local operations and classical communication such as entanglement purification or distillation procedures. We identify novel families of multi-particle states which are entangled but nevertheless allow local realistic description of specific Bell experiments. For some of them, the "gap" between the critical values for entanglement and violation of Bell inequality remains finite even in the limit of infinitely many qubits.