Abstract:
We present the results of point-contact spectroscopy measurements on High-quality epitaxial MgB2 thin films with injected current along the c-axis. The temperature and field dependences of π-band properties with the field parallel to (H⊥) or perpendicular to (H|| the c-axis are investigated in detail. When a magnetic field is applied, either parallel or perpendicular to the c-axis, the density of the quasiparticle state (DOS) of the π-band proliferates quickly with increasing field, while the gap amplitude of the π-band decreases slowly, which is different from the recent theoretical calculations, showing a field dependent competition between the interband scattering and the pair-breaking effects.

Abstract:
The results of the first directional point-contact measurements in MgB2 single crystals, in the presence of magnetic fields up to 9 T either parallel or perpendicular to the ab planes, are presented. By applying suitable magnetic fields, we separated the partial contributions of the sigma and pi bands to the total Andreev-reflection conductance. Their fit with the BTK model allowed a very accurate determination of the temperature dependency of the gaps (Delta_sigma and Delta_pi), that resulted in close agreement with the predictions of the two-band models for MgB2. We also obtained, for the first time with point-contact spectroscopy, the temperature dependence of the (anisotropic) upper critical field of the sigma band and of the (isotropic) upper critical field of the pi band.

Abstract:
The Andreev reflection measurements of the superconducting energy gap in the carbon-substituted MgB$_2$ are presented. Despite the strong suppression of the transition temperature by 17 K in comparison with the pure MgB$_2$, the same reduced value of the small superconducting energy gap with $2\Delta/kT_c \approx$ 1.7 has been systematically observed. This indicates that the two band/two gap superconductivity is still preserved here.

Abstract:
Point-contact measurements on the carbon-substituted Mg(B$_{1-x}$C$_x$)$_2$ filament/powder samples directly reveal a retention of the two superconducting energy gaps in the whole doping range from $x = 0$ to $x \approx 0.1$. The large gap on the $\sigma$-band is decreased in an essentially linear fashion with increasing the carbon concentrations. The changes in the the small gap $\Delta_{\pi}$ up to 3.8 % C are proportionally smaller and are more difficult to detect but for the heavily doped sample with $x \approx 0.1$ and $T_c = 22$ K both gaps are still present, and significantly reduced, consistent with a strong essentially linear, reduction of each gap with the transition temperature.

Abstract:
We present the first results of directional point-contact measurements in Mg_{1-x}Mn_{x}B_2 single crystals, with x up to 0.015 and bulk T_c down to 13.3 K. The order parameters Delta_{sigma} and Delta_{pi} were obtained by fitting the conductance curves with the two-band Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) model. Both Delta_{pi} and Delta_{sigma} decrease with the critical temperature of the junctions T_c^A, but remain clearly distinct up to the highest Mn content. Once analyzed within the Eliashberg theory, the results indicate that spin-flip scattering is dominant in the sigma band, as also confirmed by first-principle band structure calculations.

Abstract:
We report observation of Leggett's collective mode in a multi-band MgB2 superconductor with T_c=39K arising from the fluctuations in the relative phase between two superconducting condensates. The novel mode is observed by Raman spectroscopy at 9.4 meV in the fully symmetric scattering channel. The observed mode frequency is consistent with theoretical considerations based on the first principle computations.

Abstract:
We use tunable laser based Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy to study the electronic structure of the multi-band superconductor, MgB2. These results form the base line for detailed studies of superconductivity in multi-band systems. We find that the magnitude of the superconducting gap on both sigma bands follows a BCS-like variation with temperature with Delta0 ~7 meV. The value of the gap is isotropic within experimental uncertainty and in agreement with pure a s-wave pairing symmetry. We also observe in-gap states confined to kF of the sigma band that occur at some locations of the sample surface. The energy of this excitation, ~3 meV, is inconsistent with scattering from the pi band.

Abstract:
We demonstrate that the variation of the Andreev reflection with applied magnetic field provides a direct means of comparing the properties of MgB2 with the theory for a dirty two-band superconductor, and we find good agreement between the two. The ratio of electron diffusivities in the s and p bands can be inferred from this experiment. We find that the field dependence of the density of states at the Fermi level in the p band is independent of the field direction, and that the anisotropic upper critical field is determined by the anisotropic diffusivity in the s band.

Abstract:
Point-contact spectroscopy measurements on magnesium diboride reveal the existence of two superconducting energy gaps closing at the same transition temperature in line with the multiband model of superconductivity. The sizes of the two gaps ($\Delta_{\pi}$ = 2.8 meV and $\Delta_{\sigma}$ = 6.5-7 meV) are respectively smaller and larger than the expected weak coupling value of the one-gap superconductor. The smaller gap is rapidly filled by a small magnetic field of about 1-2 Tesla much lower than the real upper critical field $H_{c2}$. The larger gap is closed at the anisotropic $H_{c2}$. Above the gap energies reproducible non-linearities are observed at the characteristic phonon energies of MgB$_2$.

Abstract:
We report scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements of the gap properties of both ceramic MgB2 and c-axis oriented epitaxial MgB2 thin films. Both show a temperature dependent zero bias conductance peak and evidence for two superconducting gaps. We report tunneling spectroscopy of superconductor-insulator-superconductor (S-I-S) junctions formed in two ways in addition to normal metal-insulator-superconductor (N-I-S) junctions. We find a gap delta=2.3-2.8 meV, with spectral features and temperature dependence that are consistent between S-I-S junction types. In addition, we observe evidence of a second, larger gap, delta=7.2 meV, consistent with a proposed two-band model.