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Infrared Observations of Galaxy Clusters  [PDF]
David Elbaz
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: This short paper reviews some of the results obtained from ISO observations (ISOCAM and ISOPHOT) on galaxy clusters: Chap.1: "Intracluster dust": new evidence for the presence of dust outside galaxies. Chap.2:"Mid-Infrared Emission of Galaxies" origin of the mid-IR emission. Chap.3:"Star Formation in Nearby Clusters" correlation of the 7 and 15 microns fluxes with the SFR. Chap.4:"Star Formation in z=0.2 Galaxy clusters" Study of the mid-IR emission of A1732 and A1689. Chap.5:"Star Formation in z>0.4 Galaxy clusters" Preliminary.
Constraints on the Intracluster Dust Emission in the Coma Cluster of Galaxies  [PDF]
T. Kitayama,Y. Ito,Y. Okada,H. Kaneda,H. Takahashi,N. Ota,T. Onaka,Y. Y. Tajiri,H. Nagata,K. Yamada
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/695/2/1191
Abstract: We have undertaken a search for the infrared emission from the intracluster dust in the Coma cluster of galaxies by the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. Our observations yield the deepest mid and far-infrared images of a galaxy cluster ever achieved. In each of the three bands, we have not detected a signature of the central excess component in contrast to the previous report on the detection by Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We still find that the brightness ratio between 70 and 160 microns shows a marginal sign of the central excess, in qualitative agreement with the ISO result. Our analysis suggests that the excess ratio is more likely due to faint infrared sources lying on fluctuating cirrus foreground. Our observations yield the 2 sigma upper limits on the excess emission within 100 kpc of the cluster center as 5 x 10^-3 MJy/sr, 6 x 10^-2 MJy/sr, and 7 x 10^-2 MJy/sr, at 24, 70, and 160 microns, respectively. These values are in agreement with those found in other galaxy clusters and suggest that dust is deficient near the cluster center by more than 3 orders of magnitude compared to the interstellar medium.
Near/Mid Infrared-Wavelength Study of the Interacting Galaxy Pair UGC 12914/5 -- "Taffy"  [PDF]
T. H. Jarrett,G. Helou,D. Van Buren,E. Valjavec,J. J. Condon
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/301080
Abstract: We report on an infrared 1 to 17 micron study of the nearby (cz = 4600 km/s) interacting spiral galaxy system, UGC 12914/12915, using the ground-based Palomar 200" telescope and PFIRCAM near-infrared detector and space-based mid-infrared imaging and spectral observations using ISOCAM and Phot-S on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Strong line emission from aromatic band features at 6.2, 7.7 and 11.3 microns are seen in both the mid-IR imaging and Phot-S spectro-photometry centered on the nuclei. In the connecting bridge, the mid-infrared imaging reveals dust grains intermixed with the atomic hydrogen gas. The heating mechanism for the hot dust is likely to be UV photons diffusing out from the galactic disks and the H II complex located along the extreme northeastern portion of the bridge: The dust emission, or mid-infrared intensity per atomic hydrogen column density ratio, is consistent with heating from the local (bridge) interstellar radiation field.
A 2.4 - 12 microns spectrophotometric study with ISO of Cygnus X-3 in quiescence  [PDF]
Lydie Koch-Miramond,P'eter 'Abrah'am,Ya"el Fuchs,Jean-Marc Bonnet-Bidaud,Arnaud Claret
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20021273
Abstract: We present mid-infrared spectrophotometric results obtained with the ISO on the peculiar X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 in quiescence, at orbital phases 0.83 to 1.04. The 2.4-12 microns continuum radiation observed with ISOPHOT-S can be explained by thermal free-free emission in an expanding wind with, above 6.5 microns, a possible additional black-body component with temperature T ~ 250 K and radius R ~ 5000 solar radii at 10 kpc, likely due to thermal emission by circumstellar dust. The observed brightness and continuum spectrum closely match that of the Wolf-Rayet star WR 147, a WN8+B0.5 binary system, when rescaled at the same 10 kpc distance as Cygnus X-3. A rough mass loss estimate assuming a WN wind gives ~ 1.2 10^{-4} M(sun)/yr. A line at ~ 4.3 microns with a more than 4.3 sigma detection level, and with a dereddened flux of 126 mJy, is interpreted as the expected He I 3p-3s line at 4.295 microns, a prominent line in the WR 147 spectrum. These results are consistent with a Wolf-Rayet-like companion to the compact object in Cygnus X-3 of WN8 type, a later type than suggested by earlier works.
A Spitzer Study of 21 and 30 Micron Emission in Several Galactic Carbon-rich Proto-Planetary Nebulae  [PDF]
Bruce J. Hrivnak,Kevin Volk,Sun Kwok
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/694/2/1147
Abstract: We have carried out mid-infrared spectroscopy of seven Galactic proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) using the Spitzer Space Telescope. They were observed from 10-36 microns at relatively high spectral resolution, R~600. The sample was chosen because they all gave some evidence in the visible of a carbon-rich chemistry. All seven of the sources show the broad, unidentified 21 micron emission feature; three of them are new detections (IRAS 06530-0213, 07430+1115, and 19477+2401) and the others are observed at higher S/N than in previous spectra. These have the same shape and central wavelength (20.1 microns) as found in the ISO spectra of the brighter PPNs. The 30 micron feature was seen in all seven objects. However, it is not resolved into two separate features (26 and 33 microns) as was claimed on the basis of ISO spectra, which presumably suffered from the noisy detector bands in this region. All showed the infrared aromatic bands (AIB) at 11.3, 12.4, and 13.3 microns. Five of these also appear to have the C2H2 molecular band at 13.7 microns, one in absorption and four in emission. This is extremely rare, with only one other evolved star, IRC+10216, in which C2H2 emission has been observed. Four also possessed a broad, unidentified emission feature at 15.8 microns that may possibly be related to the 21 micron feature. Model fits were made to the spectral energy distributions for these PPNs to determine properties of the detached circumstellar envelopes. The 21 micron feature has been seen in all Galactic carbon-rich PPNs observed, and thus its carrier appears to be a common component of the outflow around these objects.
Silicate Emission in T Tauri Stars: Evidence for Disk Atmospheres?  [PDF]
Antonella Natta,Michael R. Meyer,Steven V. W. Beckwith
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/308787
Abstract: We present low-resolution mid-infrared spectra of nine classical T Tauri stars associated with the Chamaeleon I dark cloud. The data were obtained with the PHOT-S instrument on-board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) in the two wavelength ranges 2.5-4.9 and 5.9-11.7 microns. All nine stars show evidence of silicate emission at 10 microns, which is the only prominent feature in the spectra. We discuss a model for the origin of these features in a hot optically-thin surface layer of the circumstellar disks surrounding the central young stars (i.e. a disk atmosphere). We report excellent agreement of our observations with predictions based upon this simple model for most stars in our sample, assuming that a mixture of amorphous silicates of radius ~< 1 microns is the dominant source of opacity. These observations support the notion that extended disk atmospheres contribute substantially to the mid-IR flux of young stars.
ISOGAL Survey of Baade's Windows in the Mid-infrared  [PDF]
I. S Glass,S. Ganesh,C. Alard,J. A. D. L. Blommaert,G. Gilmore,T. Lloyd Evans,A. Omont,M. Schultheis,G. Simon
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02688.x
Abstract: The ISOGAL mid-infrared survey of areas close to the Galactic Plane aims to determine their stellar content and its possible bearing on the history of the Galaxy. The NGC6522 and Sgr I Baade's Windows of low obscuration towards the inner parts of the Bulge represent ideal places in which to calibrate and understand the ISOGAL colour-magnitude diagrams. The survey observations were made with the ISOCAM instrument of the ISO satellite. The filter bands chosen were LW2(~7 microns) and LW3(~15 microns). The results presented here show that most of the detected objects are late M-type giants on the AGB, with a cut-off for those earlier than M3-M4. The most luminous members of these two Bulge fields at 7 microns are the Mira variables. However, it is evident that they represent the end of a sequence of increasing 15 micron dust emission which commences with M giants of earlier sub-type. In observations of late-type giants the ISOCAM 15 micron band is mainly sensitive to the cool silicate or aluminate dust shells which overwhelm the photospheric emission. However, in ordinary M-giant stars, the 7 micron band is not strongly affected by dust emission and may be influenced instead by absorption. The nu2 band of water at 6.25 microns and the SiO fundamental at 7.9 microns are likely contribitors to this effect. A group of late M stars has been found which vary little or not at all but have infrared colours typical of well-developed dust shells. Their luminosities are similar to those of 200-300 day Miras but they have slightly redder [7]-[15] colours which form an extension of the ordinary M giant sequence. The Mira dust shells show a mid-infrared [7]-[15] colour-period relation. ca 700 days.
The Halo and Rings of the Planetary Nebula NGC 40 in the Mid-Infrared  [PDF]
G. Ramos-Larios,J. P. Phillips,L. C. Cuesta
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17756.x
Abstract: We present imaging and spectroscopy of NGC 40 acquired using the Spitzer Space Telescope (Spitzer), and the Infrared Space observatory (ISO). These are used to investigate the nature of emission from the central nebular shell, from the nebular halo, and from the associated circumnebular rings. It is pointed out that a variety of mechanisms may contribute to the mid-infrared (MIR) fluxes, and there is evidence for a cool dust continuum, strong ionic transitions, and appreciable emission by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Prior observations at shorter wavelengths also indicate the presence of warmer grains, and the possible contribution of H2 transitions. It is suggested that an apparent jet-like structure to the NE of the halo represents one of the many emission spokes that permeate the shell. The spokes are likely to be caused by the percolation of UV photons through a clumpy interior shell, whilst the jet-like feature is enhanced due to locally elevated electron densities; a result of interaction between NGC 40 and the interstellar medium. It is finally noted that the presence of the PAH, 21 microns and 30 microns spectral features testifies to appreciable C/O ratios within the main nebular shell. Such a result is consistent with abundance determinations using collisionally excited lines, but not with those determined using optical recombination lines
ISOCAM Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Quiescent Spiral Galaxy NGC 7331  [PDF]
Beverly J. Smith
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/305733
Abstract: Using the mid-infrared camera (ISOCAM) on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), the Sb LINER galaxy NGC 7331 has been imaged in two broadband and four narrowband filters between 6.75 and 15 microns. These maps show a prominent circumnuclear ring of radius 0.25 arcminutes X 0.75 arcminutes (1.1 X 3.3 kpc) encircling an extended central source. The 7.7 and 11.3 micron dust emission features are strong in this galaxy, contributing approximately 1/3 of the total IRAS 12 micron broadband flux from this galaxy. In contrast to starburst galaxies, the 15 micron continuum is weak in NGC 7331. The mid-infrared spectrum does not vary dramatically with position in this quiescent galaxy, showing neither large-scale destruction of the carriers of the emission bands or a large increase in the 15 micron continuum in the star forming ring. In the bulge, there is some enhancement of the 6.75 micron flux, probably because of contributions from photospheric light, however, the 11.3 micron dust feature is also seen, showing additional emission from interstellar or circumstellar dust.
Far Infrared Emission from Elliptical Galaxies: NGC 4649, NGC 4472, and NGC 4636  [PDF]
P. Temi,W. G. Mathews,F. Brighenti,J. D. Bregman
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: We present ISOPHOT P32 oversampled maps and P37/39 sparse maps, of three bright elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. The maps reach the limiting sensitivity of the ISOPHOT instrument at 60, 100, 170 and 200 microns. Two elliptical galaxies show no emission at all far-IR ISOPHOT wavelengths at a level of few tens of mJy. The null detection provides a test of the evolution of dust in elliptical galaxies and its size distribution and composition. As previous studies have shown, in many elliptical galaxies both IRAS and ISO have detected mid-IR excess 6-15 micron emission relative to the stellar continuum indicating emission from circumstellar dust. Under the assumption that these dusty outflows from evolving red giant stars and planetary nebulae are continuously supplying dust to the interstellar medium, we have computed the infrared luminosity at the ISOPHOT bands appropriate for NGC4472. The null far-IR ISOPHOT observations exceed the far-IR flux expected from dust expelled from a normal old stellar population.
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