Abstract:
Continuum strong QCD is the application of models and continuum quantum field theory to the study of phenomena in hadronic physics, which includes; e.g., the spectrum of QCD bound states and their interactions. Herein I provide a Dyson-Schwinger equation perspective, focusing on qualitative aspects of confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in cold, sparse QCD, and also elucidating consequences of the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity and features of the heavy-quark limit.

Abstract:
The problem of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB) in multidimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED) is considered. It is shown that for six-dimensional QED the phenomenon of DSCB exists in ladder model for any coupling.

Abstract:
A model for strangelets at finite temperature is built, in which the quark masses are dynamically generated. The dynamical chiral symmetry breaking inside strangelets at finite temperature is investigated. It is found that the chiral symmetry is going to break spontaneously inside the strangelets at some finite temperature, and then the masses of strange quarks inside the strangelets increase as the temperature rises. The phenomenon that strange quark mass increases with temperature after the chiral symmetry breaks spontaneously is illustrated by some typical numerical examples.

Abstract:
The Bethe-Salpeter equation is related to a generalized quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian. Instability of the presumed vacuum, indicated by a tachyon, is related to a negative energy eigenstate of this Hamiltonian. The variational method shows that an arbitrarily weak long-range attraction leads to chiral symmetry breaking, except in the scale-invariant case when the instability occurs at a critical value of the coupling. In the case of short-range attraction, an upper bound for the critical coupling is obtained.

Abstract:
The Bethe-Salpeter equation is related to a generalized quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian. Instability of the presumed vacuum, indicated by a tachyon, is related to a negative energy eigenstate of this Hamiltonian. The variational method shows that an arbitrarily weak long-range attraction leads to chiral symmetry breaking, except in the scale-invariant case when the instability occurs at a critical value of the coupling. In the case of short-range attraction, an upper bound for the critical coupling is obtained.

Abstract:
On a bounded, measurable domain of non-negative current-quark mass, realistic models of QCD's gap equation can simultaneously admit two inequivalent dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB) solutions and a solution that is unambiguously connected with the realisation of chiral symmetry in the Wigner mode. The Wigner solution and one of the DCSB solutions are destabilised by a current-quark mass and both disappear when that mass exceeds a critical value. This critical value also bounds the domain on which the surviving DCSB solution possesses a chiral expansion. This value can therefore be viewed as an upper bound on the domain within which a perturbative expansion in the current-quark mass around the chiral limit is uniformly valid for physical quantities. For a pseudoscalar meson constituted of equal mass current-quarks, it corresponds to a mass m_{0^-}~0.45GeV. In our discussion we employ properties of the two DCSB solutions of the gap equation that enable a valid definition of in the presence of a nonzero current-mass. The behaviour of this condensate indicates that the essentially dynamical component of chiral symmetry breaking decreases with increasing current-quark mass.

Abstract:
The gap equation is a cornerstone in understanding dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and may also provide clues to confinement. A symmetry-preserving truncation of its kernel enables proofs of important results and the development of an efficacious phenomenology. We describe a model of the kernel that yields: a momentum-dependent dressed-quark propagator in fair agreement with quenched lattice-QCD results; and chiral limit values: f_pi= 68 MeV and = -(190 MeV)^3. It is compared with models inferred from studies of the gauge sector.

Abstract:
The occurrence of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SChSB) is equivalent to sufficient abundance of Dirac near-zeromodes. However, dynamical mechanism leading to breakdown of chiral symmetry should be naturally reflected in chiral properties of the modes. Here we offer such connection, presenting evidence that SChSB in QCD proceeds via the appearance of modes exhibiting dynamical tendency for local chiral polarization. These modes form a band of finite width Lambda_ch (chiral polarization scale) around the surface of otherwise anti--polarized Dirac sea, and condense. Lambda_ch characterizes the dynamics of the breaking phenomenon and can be converted to a quark mass scale, thus offering conceptual means to determine which quarks of nature are governed by broken chiral dynamics. It is proposed that, within the context of SU(3) gauge theories with fundamental Dirac quarks, mode condensation is equivalent to chiral polarization. This makes Lambda_ch an "order parameter" of SChSB, albeit without local dynamical field representation away from chiral limit. Several uses of these features, both at zero and finite temperature, are discussed. Our initial estimates are Lambda_ch~150 MeV (N_f=0), Lambda_ch~80 MeV (N_f=2+1, physical point), and that the strange quark is too heavy to be crucially influenced by broken chiral symmetry.

Abstract:
We present some of the reasoning and results substantiating the notion that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SChSB) in QCD is encoded in local chiral properties of Dirac eigenmodes. Such association is possible when viewing chirality as a dynamical effect, measured with respect to the benchmark of statistically independent left-right components. Following this rationale leads to describing local chiral behavior by a taylor-made correlation, namely the recently introduced correlation coefficient of polarization C_A. In this language, correlated modes (C_A>0) show dynamical preference for local chirality while anti-correlated modes (C_A<0) favor anti-chirality. Our conclusion is that SChSB in QCD can be viewed as dominance of low-energy correlation (chirality) over anti-correlation (anti-chirality) of Dirac sea. The spectral range of local chirality, chiral polarization scale Lambda_ch, is a dynamically generated scale in the theory associated with SChSB. One implication of these findings is briefly discussed.

Abstract:
We study the effect of QCD-monopole condensation on the dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking by using the dual Ginzburg-Landau theory of QCD. We formulate the Schwinger-Dyson equation and solve it numerically. The large enhancement is found for the chiral-symmetry breaking due to QCD-monopole condensation, which suggests the close relation between the color confinement and the chiral-symmetry breaking.