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The Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey  [PDF]
Masao Sako,Bruce Bassett,Andrew C. Becker,Peter J. Brown,Heather Campbell,Rachel Cane,David Cinabro,Chris B. D'Andrea,Kyle S. Dawson,Fritz DeJongh,Darren L. Depoy,Ben Dilday,Mamoru Doi,Alexei V. Filippenko,John A. Fischer,Ryan J. Foley,Joshua A. Frieman,Lluis Galbany,Peter M. Garnavich,Ariel Goobar,Ravi R. Gupta,Gary J. Hill,Brian T. Hayden,Renee Hlozek,Jon A. Holtzman,Ulrich Hopp,Saurabh W. Jha,Richard Kessler,Wolfram Kollatschny,Giorgos Leloudas,John Marriner,Jennifer L. Marshall,Ramon Miquel,Tomoki Morokuma,Jennifer Mosher,Robert C. Nichol,Jakob Nordin,Matthew D. Olmstead,Linda Ostman,Jose L. Prieto,Michael Richmond,Roger W. Romani,Jesper Sollerman,Max Stritzinger,Donald P. Schneider,Mathew Smith,J. Craig Wheeler,Naoki Yasuda,Chen Zheng
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: This paper describes the data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey conducted between 2005 and 2007. Light curves, spectra, classifications, and ancillary data are presented for 10,258 variable and transient sources discovered through repeat ugriz imaging of SDSS Stripe 82, a 300 deg2 area along the celestial equator. This data release is comprised of all transient sources brighter than r~22.5 mag with no history of variability prior to 2004. Dedicated spectroscopic observations were performed on a subset of 889 transients, as well as spectra for thousands of transient host galaxies using the SDSS-III BOSS spectrographs. Photometric classifications are provided for the candidates with good multi-color light curves that were not observed spectroscopically. From these observations, 4607 transients are either spectroscopically confirmed, or likely to be, supernovae, making this the largest sample of supernova candidates ever compiled. We present a new method for SN host-galaxy identification and derive host-galaxy properties including stellar masses, star-formation rates, and the average stellar population ages from our SDSS multi-band photometry. We derive SALT2 distance moduli for a total of 1443 SN Ia with spectroscopic redshifts as well as photometric redshifts for a further 677 purely-photometric SN Ia candidates. Using the spectroscopically confirmed subset of the three-year SDSS-II SN Ia sample and assuming a flat Lambda-CDM cosmology, we determine Omega_M = 0.315 +/- 0.093 (statistical error only) and detect a non-zero cosmological constant at 5.7 sigmas.
Column density distribution and cosmological mass density of neutral gas: Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Data Release 9  [PDF]
P. Noterdaeme,P. Petitjean,W. C. Carithers,I. Paris,A. Font-Ribera,S. Bailey,E. Aubourg,D. Bizyaev,G. Ebelke,H. Finley,J. Ge,E. Malanushenko,V. Malanushenko,J. Miralda-Escudé,A. D. Myers,D. Oravetz,K. Pan,M. M. Pieri,N. P. Ross,D. P. Schneider,A. Simmons,D. G. York
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201220259
Abstract: We present the first results from an ongoing survey for Damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs) in the spectra of z>2 quasars observed in the course of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), which is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III. Our full (non-statistical) sample, based on Data Release 9, comprises 12,081 systems with log N(HI)>=20, out of which 6,839 have log N(HI)>=20.3. This is the largest DLA sample ever compiled, superseding that from SDSS-II by a factor of seven. Using a statistical sub-sample and estimating systematics from realistic mock data, we probe the N(HI) distribution at = 2.5. Contrary to what is generally believed, the distribution extends beyond 10^22 cm^-2 with a moderate slope of index\approx-3.5. This result matches surprisingly well the opacity-corrected distribution observed at z = 0. The cosmological mass density of neutral gas in DLAs is found to be Omega_g_DLA~10^-3, evolving only mildly over the past 12 billion years.
First-year Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Results: Hubble Diagram and Cosmological Parameters  [PDF]
Richard Kessler,Andrew Becker,David Cinabro,Jake Vanderplas,Joshua A. Frieman,John Marriner,Tamara M Davis,Benjamin Dilday,Jon Holtzman,Saurabh Jha,Hubert Lampeitl,Masao Sako,Mathew Smith,Chen Zheng,Robert C. Nichol,Bruce Bassett,Ralf Bender,Darren L. Depoy,Mamoru Doi,Ed Elson,Alex V. Filippenko,Ryan J. Foley,Peter M. Garnavich,Ulrich Hopp,Yutaka Ihara,William Ketzeback,W. Kollatschny,Kohki Konishi,Jennifer L. Marshall,Russet J. McMillan,Gajus Miknaitis,Tomoki Morokuma,Edvard M"ortsell,Kaike Pan,Jose Luis Prieto,Michael W. Richmond,Adam G. Riess,Roger Romani,Donald P. Schneider,Jesper Sollerman,Naohiro Takanashi,Kouichi Tokita,Kurt van der Heyden,J. C. Wheeler,Naoki Yasuda,Donald York
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/185/1/32
Abstract: We present measurements of the Hubble diagram for 103 Type Ia supernovae (SNe) with redshifts 0.04 < z < 0.42, discovered during the first season (Fall 2005) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. These data fill in the redshift "desert" between low- and high-redshift SN Ia surveys. We combine the SDSS-II measurements with new distance estimates for published SN data from the ESSENCE survey, the Supernova Legacy Survey, the Hubble Space Telescope, and a compilation of nearby SN Ia measurements. Combining the SN Hubble diagram with measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from the SDSS Luminous Red Galaxy sample and with CMB temperature anisotropy measurements from WMAP, we estimate the cosmological parameters w and Omega_M, assuming a spatially flat cosmological model (FwCDM) with constant dark energy equation of state parameter, w. For the FwCDM model and the combined sample of 288 SNe Ia, we find w = -0.76 +- 0.07(stat) +- 0.11(syst), Omega_M = 0.306 +- 0.019(stat) +- 0.023(syst) using MLCS2k2 and w = -0.96 +- 0.06(stat) +- 0.12(syst), Omega_M = 0.265 +- 0.016(stat) +- 0.025(syst) using the SALT-II fitter. We trace the discrepancy between these results to a difference in the rest-frame UV model combined with a different luminosity correction from color variations; these differences mostly affect the distance estimates for the SNLS and HST supernovae. We present detailed discussions of systematic errors for both light-curve methods and find that they both show data-model discrepancies in rest-frame $U$-band. For the SALT-II approach, we also see strong evidence for redshift-dependence of the color-luminosity parameter (beta). Restricting the analysis to the 136 SNe Ia in the Nearby+SDSS-II samples, we find much better agreement between the two analysis methods but with larger uncertainties.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II: Photometry and Supernova Ia Light Curves from the 2005 data  [PDF]
Jon A. Holtzman,John Marriner,Richard Kessler,Masao Sako,Ben Dilday,Joshua A. Frieman,Donald P. Schneider,Bruce Bassett,Andrew Becker,David Cinabro,Fritz DeJongh,Darren L. Depoy,Mamoru Doi,Peter M. Garnavich,Craig J. Hogan,Saurabh Jha,Kohki Konishi,Hubert Lampeitl,Jennifer L. Marshall,David McGinnis,Gajus Miknaitis,Robert C. Nichol,Jose Luis Prieto,Adam G. Reiss,Michael W. Richmond,Roger Romani,Mathew Smith,Naohiro Takanashi,Kouichi Tokita,Kurt van der Heyden,Naoki Yasuda,Chen Zheng
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/136/6/2306
Abstract: We present ugriz light curves for 146 spectroscopically confirmed or spectroscopically probable Type Ia supernovae from the 2005 season of the SDSS-II Supernova survey. The light curves have been constructed using a photometric technique that we call scene modelling, which is described in detail here; the major feature is that supernova brightnesses are extracted from a stack of images without spatial resampling or convolution of the image data. This procedure produces accurate photometry along with accurate estimates of the statistical uncertainty, and can be used to derive photometry taken with multiple telescopes. We discuss various tests of this technique that demonstrate its capabilities. We also describe the methodology used for the calibration of the photometry, and present calibrated magnitudes and fluxes for all of the spectroscopic SNe Ia from the 2005 season.
SNe Ia host galaxy properties from Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II spectroscopy  [PDF]
Jonas Johansson,Daniel Thomas,Janine Pforr,Claudia Maraston,Robert C. Nichol,Mathew Smith,Hubert Lampeitl,Alessandra Beifiori,Ravi R. Gupta,Donald P. Schneider
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1408
Abstract: We study the stellar populations of SNe Ia host galaxies using SDSS-II spectroscopy. We focus on the relationships of SNe Ia properties with stellar velocity dispersion and the stellar population parameters age, metallicity and element abundance ratios derived by fitting absorption line indices to stellar population models. We concentrate on a sub-sample of 84 SNe Ia from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. In agreement with previous findings, we find that SALT2 stretch factor values show the strongest dependence on stellar population age. Hence, SNe Ia peak-luminosity is closely related to the age of the stellar progenitor systems, where more luminous SNe Ia appear in younger stellar populations. We find no statistically significant trends in the Hubble residual with any of the stellar population parameters studied, including age and metallicity contrary to the literature, as well as with stellar velocity dispersion. Moreover, we find that the method of stellar mass derivation is affecting the Hubble residual-mass relationship when lower number statistics are used. We extend the sample to also include SNe Ia with available SDSS host galaxy photometry only. For this larger sample (247 objects) the reported Hubble residual-mass relation is strongly dependent on the stellar mass range studied and behaves as a step function. In the high mass regime, probed by our host spectroscopy sample, the relation between Hubble residual and stellar mass is flat. Below a stellar mass of ~2x10^10 Msun, i.e. close to the evolutionary transition mass of low-redshift galaxies reported in the literature, the trend changes dramatically such that lower mass galaxies possess lower luminosity SNe Ia after light-curve corrections. This non-linear behaviour of the Hubble residual-mass relationship should be accounted for when using stellar mass as a further parameter for minimising the Hubble residuals.
Direct Minkowski Functional analysis of large redshift surveys: a new high--speed code tested on the luminous red galaxy Sloan Digital Sky Survey-DR7 catalogue  [PDF]
Alexander Wiegand,Thomas Buchert,Matthias Ostermann
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1118
Abstract: As deeper galaxy catalogues are soon to come, it becomes even more importantto measure large-scale fluctuations in the catalogues with robust statistics that cover all moments of the galaxy distribution.In this paper we reinforce a direct analysis of galaxy data by employing the Germ-Grain method to calculate thefamily of Minkowski Functionals. We introduce a new code, suitable for the analysis of large data sets without smoothingand without the construction of excursion sets. We provide new tools to measure correlation properties, putting emphasis onexplicitly isolating non-Gaussian correlations with the help of integral-geometric relations. As a first application we present the analysis of large-scale fluctuations in the luminous red galaxy sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7 data. We findsignificant deviations from the $\Lambda$ cold dark matter mock catalogues on samples as large as $500h^{-1}$Mpc (more than $3\sigma$)and slight deviations of around $2\sigma$ on $700h^{-1}$Mpc, and we investigate possible sources of these deviations.
First-year Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) supernova results: consistency and constraints with other intermediate-redshift datasets  [PDF]
H. Lampeitl,R. C. Nichol,H. -J. Seo,T. Giannantonio,C. Shapiro,B. Bassett,W. J. Percival,T. M. Davis,B. Dilday,J. Frieman,P. Garnavich,M. Sako,M. Smith,J. Sollerman,A. C. Becker,D. Cinabro,A. V. Filippenko,R. J. Foley,C. J. Hogan,J. A. Holtzman,S. W. Jha,K. Konishi,J. Marriner,M. W. Richmond,A. G. Riess,D. P. Schneider,M. Stritzinger,K. J. van der Heyden,J. T. VanderPlas,J. C. Wheeler,C. Zheng
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15851.x
Abstract: We present an analysis of the luminosity distances of Type Ia Supernovae from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey in conjunction with other intermediate redshift (z<0.4) cosmological measurements including redshift-space distortions from the Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect seen by the SDSS, and the latest Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) distance scale from both the SDSS and 2dFGRS. We have analysed the SDSS-II SN data alone using a variety of "model-independent" methods and find evidence for an accelerating universe at >97% level from this single dataset. We find good agreement between the supernova and BAO distance measurements, both consistent with a Lambda-dominated CDM cosmology, as demonstrated through an analysis of the distance duality relationship between the luminosity (d_L) and angular diameter (d_A) distance measures. We then use these data to estimate w within this restricted redshift range (z<0.4). Our most stringent result comes from the combination of all our intermediate-redshift data (SDSS-II SNe, BAO, ISW and redshift-space distortions), giving w = -0.81 +0.16 -0.18(stat) +/- 0.15(sys) and Omega_M=0.22 +0.09 -0.08 assuming a flat universe. This value of w, and associated errors, only change slightly if curvature is allowed to vary, consistent with constraints from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We also consider more limited combinations of the geometrical (SN, BAO) and dynamical (ISW, redshift-space distortions) probes.
First-Year Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Results: Constraints on Non-Standard Cosmological Models  [PDF]
J. Sollerman,E. M?rtsell,T. M. Davis,M. Blomqvist,B. Bassett,A. C. Becker,D. Cinabro,A. V. Filippenko,R. J. Foley,J. Frieman,P. Garnavich,H. Lampeitl,J. Marriner,R. Miquel,R. C. Nichol,M. W. Richmond,M. Sako,D. P. Schneider,M. Smith,J. T. Vanderplas,J. C. Wheeler
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/703/2/1374
Abstract: We use the new SNe Ia discovered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey together with additional supernova datasets as well as observations of the cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillations to constrain cosmological models. This complements the analysis presented by Kessler et al. in that we discuss and rank a number of the most popular non-standard cosmology scenarios. When this combined data-set is analyzed using the MLCS2k2 light-curve fitter, we find that more exotic models for cosmic acceleration provide a better fit to the data than the Lambda-CDM model. For example, the flat DGP model is ranked higher by our information criteria tests than the standard model. When the dataset is instead analyzed using the SALT-II light-curve fitter, the standard cosmological constant model fares best. Our investigation also includes inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. While our LTB models can be made to fit the supernova data as well as any other model, the extra parameters they require are not supported by our information criteria analysis.
The SDSS SkyServer, Public Access to the Sloan Digital Sky Server Data  [PDF]
Alexander Szalay,Jim Gray,Ani Thakar,Peter Z. Kunszt,Tanu Malik,Jordan Raddick,Christopher Stoughton,Jan vandenBerg
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: The SkyServer provides Internet access to the public Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data for both astronomers and for science education. This paper describes the SkyServer goals and architecture. It also describes our experience operating the SkyServer on the Internet. The SDSS data is public and well-documented so it makes a good test platform for research on database algorithms and performance.
The SDSS SkyServer: Public Access to the Sloan Digital Sky Server Data  [PDF]
Alexander S. Szalay,Jim Gray,Ani R. Thakar,Peter Z. Kunszt,Tanu Malik,Jordan Raddick,Christopher Stoughton,Jan vandenBerg
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: The SkyServer provides Internet access to the public Sloan Digi-tal Sky Survey (SDSS) data for both astronomers and for science education. This paper describes the SkyServer goals and archi-tecture. It also describes our experience operating the SkyServer on the Internet. The SDSS data is public and well-documented so it makes a good test platform for research on database algorithms and performance.
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