Abstract:
Following the demonstration that gravitational waves impart linear momentum, it is argued that if they are polarized they should impart angular momentum to appropriately placed 'test rods' in their path. A general formula for this angular momentum is obtained and used to provide expressions for the angular momentum imparted by plane and cylindrical gravitational waves.

Abstract:
We calculate the angular momentum transport by gravito-inertial-Alfv\'en waves and show that, so long as prograde and retrograde gravity waves are excited to roughly the same amplitude, the sign of angular momentum deposit in the radiative interior of the Sun is such as to lead to an exponential growth of any existing small radial gradient of rotation velocity just below the convection zone. This leads to formation of a strong thin shear layer (of thickness about 0.3% R_\odot) near the top of the radiative zone of the Sun on a time-scale of order 20 years. When the magnitude of differential rotation across this layer reaches about 0.1 \mu Hz, the layer becomes unstable to shear instability and undergoes mixing, and the excess angular momentum deposited in the layer is returned to the convection zone. The strong shear in this layer generates toroidal magnetic field which is also deposited in the convection zone when the layer becomes unstable. This could possibly start a new magnetic activity cycle seen at the surface.

Abstract:
An extension of the conservation equation for angular momentum is established for fluid dynamical purposes. The three components of the angular momentum vector, described in a Cartesian coordinate system, are divided into pairs of “partial angular momentum” terms. Conversation equations are developed for each of these terms. They show that shear stresses (viscous and Ray-nolds stresses) transfer angular momentum between the two terms of a pair, and they provide means nolds to calculate internal transfer of angular momentum between different dynamical regimes of a system. Two such regimes are waves and shear currents and a brief study of the influence of shear stresses on waves and waves’ interactions with currents, is included as an example.

Abstract:
In the paper we show that the real gravitational waves which have $R_{iklm}\not= 0$ always carry energy-momentum and angular momentum. Our proof uses canonical superenergy and supermomentum tensors for gravitational field.

Abstract:
We review the behavior of the oscillating shear layer produced by gravity waves below the surface convection zone of the Sun. We show that, under asymmetric filtering produced by this layer, gravity waves of low spherical order, which are stochastically excited at the base of the convection zone of late type stars, can extract angular momentum from their radiative interior. The time-scale for this momentum extraction in a Sun-like star is of the order of 10^7 years. The process is particularly efficient in the central region, and it could produce there a slowly rotating core.

Abstract:
The internal gravity waves of low frequency which are emitted at the base of the solar convection zone are able to extract angular momentum from the radiative interior. We evaluate this transport with some simplifying assumptions: we ignore the Coriolis force, approximate the spectrum of turbulent convection by the Kolmogorov law, and couple this turbulence to the internal waves through their pressure fluctuations, following Press (1981) and Garcia Lopez & Spruit (1991). The local frequency of an internal wave varies with depth in a differentially rotating star, and it can vanish at some location, thus leading to enhanced damping (Goldreich & Nicholson 1989). It is this dissipation mechanism only that we take into account in the exchange of momentum between waves and stellar rotation. The flux of angular momentum is then an implicit function of depth, involving the local rotation rate and an integral representing the cumulative effect of radiative dissipation. We find that the efficiency of this transport process is rather high: it operates on a timescale of 10^7 years, and is probably responsible for the flat rotation profile which has been detected through helioseismology.

Abstract:
The Be phenomenon, that is the ejection of matter from Be stars into a circumstellar disk, has been a long lasting mystery. In the last few years, the CoRoT (Convection, Rotation and planetary Transits) satellite brought clear evidence that Be outbursts are directly correlated with pulsations. We found that it may be the transport of angular momentum by waves or pulsation modes that brings the already rapid stellar rotation to its critical value at the surface, and allows the star to eject material. The recent discovery of stochastically excited gravito-inertial modes by CoRoT in a hot Be star strengthens this scenario. We present the CoRoT observations and modeling of several Be stars and describe the new picture of the Be phenomenon which arose from these results.

Abstract:
We present numerical simulations of internal gravity waves (IGW) in a star with a convective core and extended radiative envelope. We report on amplitudes, spectra, dissipation and consequent angular momentum transport by such waves. We find that these waves are generated efficiently and transport angular momentum on short timescales over large distances. We show that, as in the Earth's atmosphere, IGW drive equatorial flows which change magnitude and direction on short timescales. These results have profound consequences for the observational inferences of massive stars, as well as their long term angular momentum evolution. We suggest IGW angular momentum transport may explain many observational mysteries, such as: the misalignment of hot Jupiters around hot stars, the Be class of stars, Ni enrichment anomalies in massive stars and the non-synchronous orbits of interacting binaries.

Abstract:
Interaction of a stochastic background of gravitational radiation with celestial systems changes their dynamical elements in a random manner and give rise to secular changes in time. In this spirit we study the angular momentum transfer from a random background of radiation either to a rotating star or to an oscillating one. The angular momentum transferred to such objects by a continuous plane wave is proportional to time, $t$, and by an stochastic background is proportional to $t^{1/2}$.

Abstract:
The statistical mechanics of a non-interacting polymer chain in the limit of a large number of monomers is considered when the total angular momentum, L, is fixed. The radius of gyration for a ring polymer in this situation is derived exactly in closed form by functional integration techniques. Even when L = 0 the radius of gyration differs from that of a random walk by a prefactor of order unity. The dependence on L is discussed qualitatively and the large L limit can be understood by physical arguments.