Abstract:
In this work we investigate small clusters of bosons using the hyperspherical harmonic basis. We consider systems with $A=2,3,4,5,6$ particles interacting through a soft inter-particle potential. In order to make contact with a real system, we use an attractive gaussian potential that reproduces the values of the dimer binding energy and the atom-atom scattering length obtained with one of the most widely used $^4$He-$^4$He interactions, the LM2M2 potential. The intensity of the potential is varied in order to explore the clusters' spectra in different regions with large positive and large negative values of the two-body scattering length. In addition, we include a repulsive three-body force to reproduce the trimer binding energy. With this model, consisting in the sum of a two- and three-body potential, we have calculated the spectrum of the four, five and six particle systems. In all the region explored, we have found that these systems present two bound states, one deep and one shallow close to the $A-1$ threshold. Some universal relations between the energy levels are extracted; in particular, we have estimated the universal ratios between thresholds of the three-, four-, and five-particle continuum using the two-body gaussian

Abstract:
Few-body systems with large scattering length have universal properties that do not depend on the details of their interactions at short distances. We study the universal bound state properties of the four-boson system with large scattering length in an effective quantum mechanics approach. We compute the four-body binding energies using the Yakubovsky equations for positive and negative scattering length. Moreover, we study the correlation between three- and four-body energies and present a generalized Efimov plot for the four-body system. These results are useful for understanding the cluster structure of nuclei and for the creation of weakly-bound tetramers with cold atoms close to a Feshbach resonance.

Abstract:
The number of four-body states known to behave universally is small. This work adds a new class of four-body states to this relatively short list. We predict the existence of a universal four-body bound state for heavy-light mixtures consisting of three identical heavy fermions and a fourth distinguishable lighter particle with mass ratio $\kappa \gtrsim 9.5$ and short-range interspecies interaction characterized by a positive s-wave scattering length. The structural properties of these universal states are discussed and finite-range effects are analyzed. The bound states can be experimentally realized and probed utilizing ultracold atom mixtures.

Abstract:
The brief description of a new approach based on the Wave-Packet Continuum Discretization method recently developed by the present authors towards solving few-body quantum scattering problems is given. The formalism uses the complete continuum discretization scheme in terms of the momentum stationary wave-packet basis, which leads to formulation of the scattering problem on a lattice in the momentum space. The solution of the few-body scattering problem can be found in the approach from linear matrix equations with non-singular matrix elements, averaged on energy over lattice cells.

Abstract:
$\Kbar N$ interactions are investigated {\it via} an effective non-linear chiral meson-baryon Lagrangian. The adjustable parameters are determined by a fitting procedure on the $K^-p$ threshold branching ratios and total cross-section data for $p^{lab}_K\le$ 250 MeV/c. We produce predictions for the $\Sigma \pi$ mass spectrum, and scattering lenghts $a_{K^-p}$, $a_n(K^-n \to K^-n)$, $a_n0(\Kbar0 n \to \Kbar0 n)$, and $a_{ex}(K^-p \to \Kbar0 n)$. The $\Kbar N$ amplitudes thus obtained, as well as those for other two-body channels ($\pi N$, $NN$, and $YN$) are used as input to predict the scattering length $A_{K^-d}$, for which we have devised a relativistic version of the three-body Faddeev equations. Results for all two- and three-body coupled channels are reported both in isospin and particle bases. All available $\Kbar N$ data are well reproduced and our best results for the $K^-p$ and $K^-d$ scattering lenghts are $a_{K^-p} = (-0.90 + i 0.87) fm$ and $A_{K^-d} = (-1.80 + i 1.55) fm$.

Abstract:
The effective field theory with contact interactions alone is a powerful tool to compute low-energy observables for three-body systems with large scattering length. Recent calculations including effective range corrections are discussed and results are presented.

Abstract:
We present a simple picture that provides the energy and scattering length dependence for all inelastic three-body collision rates in the ultracold regime for three-body systems with short range two-body interactions. In particular, we present the scaling laws for vibrational relaxation, three-body recombination, and collision-induced dissociation for systems that support s-wave two-body collisions. These systems include three identical bosons (BBB), two identical bosons (BBB'), and two identical fermions (FFF'). Our approach reproduces all previous results, predicts several others, and gives the general form of the scaling laws in all cases.

Abstract:
Particles with short-range interactions and a large scattering length have universal low-energy properties that do not depend on the details of their structure or their interactions at short distances. In the 2-body sector, the universal properties are familiar and depend only on the scattering length a. In the 3-body sector for identical bosons, the universal properties include the existence of a sequence of shallow 3-body bound states called "Efimov states" and log-periodic dependence of scattering observables on the energy and the scattering length. The spectrum of Efimov states in the limit a -> +/- infinity is characterized by an asymptotic discrete scaling symmetry that is the signature of renormalization group flow to a limit cycle. In this review, we present a thorough treatment of universality for the system of three identical bosons and we summarize the universal information that is currently available for other 3-body systems. Our basic tools are the hyperspherical formalism to provide qualitative insights, Efimov's radial laws for deriving the constraints from unitarity, and effective field theory for quantitative calculations. We also discuss topics on the frontiers of universality, including its extension to systems with four or more particles and the systematic calculation of deviations from universality.

Abstract:
An effective field theory for the three-body system with large scattering length is applied to three-body recombination to a weakly-bound s-wave state in a Bose gas. Our model independent analysis demonstrates that the three-body recombination constant alpha is not universal, but can take any value between zero and 67.9 \hbar a^4/m, where a is the scattering length. Other low-energy three-body observables can be predicted in terms of a and alpha. Near a Feshbach resonance, alpha should oscillate between those limits as the magnetic field B approaches the point where a -> infinity. In any interval of B over which a increases by a factor of 22.7, alpha should have a zero.

Abstract:
Two-component Fermi and Bose gases with infinitely large interspecies s-wave scattering length $a_s$ exhibit a variety of intriguing properties. Among these are the scale invariance of two-component Fermi gases with equal masses, and the favorable scaling of Efimov features for two-component Bose gases and Bose-Fermi mixtures with unequal masses. This paper builds on our earlier work [D. Blume and K. M. Daily, arXiv:1006.5002] and presents a detailed discussion of our studies of small unequal-mass two-component systems with infinite $a_s$ in the regime where three-body Efimov physics is absent. We report on non-universal few-body resonances. Just like with two-body systems on resonance, few-body systems have a zero-energy bound state in free space and a diverging generalized scattering length. Our calculations are performed within a non-perturbative microscopic framework and investigate the energetics and structural properties of small unequal-mass two-component systems as functions of the mass ratio $\kappa$, and the numbers $N_{1}$ and $N_2$ of heavy and light atoms. For purely attractive Gaussian two-body interactions, we find that the $(N_1,N_2)=(2,1)$ and $(3,1)$ systems exhibit three-body and four-body resonances at mass ratios $\kappa = 12.314(2)$ and 10.4(2), respectively. The three- and four-particle systems on resonance are found to be large. This suggests that the corresponding wave function has relatively small overlap with deeply-bound dimers, trimers or larger clusters and that the three- and four-body systems on resonance have a comparatively long lifetime. Thus, it seems feasible that the features discussed in this paper can be probed experimentally with present-day technology.