Abstract:
A longstanding goal of Akira Tonomura was to observe Hanbury Brown--Twiss anti-correlations between electrons in a field-emission free electron beam. The experimental results were reported in his 2011 paper with Tetsuji Kodama and Nobuyuki Osakabe [Phys. Rev. A 83, 063616 (2011)]. An open issue in such a measurement is whether the observed anti-correlations arise from quantum statistics, or are simply produced by Coulomb repulsion between electrons. In this paper we describe a simple classical model of Coulomb effects to estimate their effects in electron beam interferometry experiments, and conclude that the experiment did indeed observe quantum correlations in the electron arrrival times.

Abstract:
An apparent h/fe Aharonov-Bohm flux period, where f is an integer, has been reported in coherent quantum Hall devices. Such sub-period is not expected for non-interacting electrons and thus is thought to result from interelectron Coulomb interaction. Here we report experiments in a Fabry-Perot interferometer comprised of two wide constrictions enclosing an electron island. By carefully tuning the constriction front gates, we find a regime where interference oscillations with period h/2e persist throughout the transition between the integer quantum Hall plateaus 2 and 3, including half-filling. In a large quantum Hall sample, a transition between integer plateaus occurs near half-filling, where the bulk of the sample becomes delocalized and thus dissipative bulk current flows between the counterpropagating edges ("backscattering"). In a quantum Hall constriction, where conductance is due to electron tunneling, a transition between forward- and back-scattering is expected near the half-filling. In our experiment, neither period nor amplitude of the oscillations show a discontinuity at half-filling, indicating that only one interference path exists throughout the transition. We also present experiments and an analysis of the front-gate dependence of the phase of the oscillations. The results point to a single physical mechanism of the observed conductance oscillations: Aharonov-Bohm interference of interacting electrons in quantum Hall regime.

Abstract:
We propose an experiment to test the influence of Lorentz contraction on the interference pattern of a beam of electrons. The electron beam is split and recombined by two pairs of bi-chromatic laser pulses, using a variation of the Kapitza-Dirac effect. Between the pairs the electrons are accelerated to relativistic speed. We show that Lorentz contraction of the distance between two partial beams will then lead to a reduction of fringe visibility. The connection of the proposal to Bell's spaceship paradox is discussed.

Abstract:
This chapter reviews recent experiments on matter wave interferometry with large molecules. Starting from an elementary introduction to matter wave physics we discuss far-field diffraction and near-field interferometry with thermally excited many-body systems. We describe the constraints imposed by decoherence and dephasing effects, and present an outlook to the future challenges in macromolecule and cluster interferometry.

Abstract:
We report the first experimental demonstration of even-order aberration cancellation in quantum interferometry. The effect is a spatial counterpart of the spectral group velocity dispersion cancellation, which is associated with spectral entanglement. It is manifested in temporal interferometry by virtue of the multi-parameter spatial-spectral entanglement. Spatially-entangled photons, generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion, were subjected to spatial aberrations introduced by a deformable mirror that modulates the wavefront. We show that only odd-order spatial aberrations affect the quality of quantum interference.

Abstract:
Pathway analysis has become the first choice for gaining insight into the underlying biology of differentially expressed genes and proteins, as it reduces complexity and has increased explanatory power. We discuss the evolution of knowledge base–driven pathway analysis over its first decade, distinctly divided into three generations. We also discuss the limitations that are specific to each generation, and how they are addressed by successive generations of methods. We identify a number of annotation challenges that must be addressed to enable development of the next generation of pathway analysis methods. Furthermore, we identify a number of methodological challenges that the next generation of methods must tackle to take advantage of the technological advances in genomics and proteomics in order to improve specificity, sensitivity, and relevance of pathway analysis.

Abstract:
If scattering amplitudes are ordinary complex numbers (not quaternions) there is a universal algebraic relationship between the six coherent cross sections of any three scatterers (taken singly and pairwise). A violation of this relationship would indicate either that scattering amplitudes are quaternions, or that the superposition principle fails. Some possible experimental tests involve neutron interferometry, K_S-meson regeneration, and low energy proton-proton scattering.

Abstract:
We describe a solid state implementation of a quantum computer using ballistic single electrons as flying qubits in 1D nanowires. We show how to implement all the steps required for universal quantum computation: preparation of the initial state, measurement of the final state and a universal set of quantum gates. An important advantage of this model is the fact that we do not need ultrafast optoelectronics for gate operations. We use cold programming (or pre-programming), i.e., the gates are set before launching the electrons; all programming can be done using static electric fields only.

Abstract:
An ab initio, three-dimensional quantum mechanical calculation has been performed for the time-evolution of continuum electrons in the fields of moving charges. Here the essential singularity associated with the diverging phase factor in the continuum wave function is identified and removed analytically. As a result, the continuum components of the regularized wave function are slowly varying with time. Therefore, one can propagate continuum electrons to asymptotically large times and obtain numerically stable, well-converged ejected electron momentum spectra with very low numerical noise. As a consequence, our approach resolves outstanding controversies concerning structures in electron momentum distributions. The main conclusions are general and are illustrated here for ionization of atomic hydrogen by proton impact. Our results show that in order to obtain correct long-time free-particle propagation, the essential singularity identified here should be removed from the continuum components of solutions to the time-dependent Schrodinger equation.

Abstract:
In quantum interferometry, it is vital to control and utilize nonlinear interactions for achieving high-precision measurements. Attribute to their long coherent time and high controllability, ultracold atoms including Bose condensed atoms have been widely used for implementing quantum interferometry. Here, we review the recent progresses in theoretical studies of quantum interferometry with Bose condensed atoms. In particular, we focus on the nonlinear phenomena induced by the atom-atom interaction and how to control and utilize these nonlinear phenomena. Under the mean-field description, due to the atom-atom interaction, matter-wave solitons appear in the interference patterns, and macroscopic quantum self-trapping exists in the Bose-Josephson junctions. Under the many-body description, the atom-atom interaction can generate non-classical entanglement, which may be utilized to achieve high-precision measurements beyond the standard quantum limit.