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Star formation and chemical evolution in SPH simulations: a statistical approach  [PDF]
C. Lia,L. Portinari,G. Carraro
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05118.x
Abstract: In Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics (SPH) codes with a large number of particles, star formation as well as gas and metal restitution from dying stars can be treated statistically. This approach allows to include detailed chemical evolution and gas re-ejection with minor computational effort. Here we report on a new statistical algorithm for star formation and chemical evolution, especially conceived for SPH simulations with large numbers of particles, and for parallel SPH codes. For the sake of illustration, we present also two astrophysical simulations obtained with this algorithm, implemented into the Tree-SPH code by Lia & Carraro (2000). In the first one, we follow the formation of an individual disc-like galaxy, predict the final structure and metallicity evolution, and test resolution effects. In the second one we simulate the formation and evolution of a cluster of galaxies, to demonstrate the capabilities of the algorithm in investigating the chemo-dynamical evolution of galaxies and of the intergalactic medium in a cosmological context.
Particle Splitting: A New Method for SPH Star Formation Simulations  [PDF]
Spyridon Kitsionas
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: We have invented a new algorithm to use with self-gravitating SPH Star Formation codes. The new method is designed to enable SPH simulations to self-regulate their numerical resolution, i.e. the number of SPH particles; the latter is calculated using the Jeans condition (Bate & Burkert 1997) and the local hydrodynamic conditions of the gas. We apply our SPH with Particle Splitting code to cloud-cloud collision simulations. Chapter 2 lists the properties of our standard SPH code. Chapter 3 discusses the efficiency of the standard code as this is applied to simulations of rotating, uniform clouds with m=2 density perturbations. Chapter 4 [astro-ph/0203057] describes the new method and the tests that it has successfully been applied to. It also contains the results of the application of Particle Splitting to the case of rotating clouds as those of Chapter 3, where, with great computational efficiency, we have reproduced the results of FD codes and SPH simulations with large numbers of particles. Chapter 5 gives a detailed account of the cloud-cloud collisions studied, starting from a variety of initial conditions produced by altering the cloud mass, cloud velocity and the collision impact parameter. In the majority of the cases studied, the collisions produced filaments (similar to those observed in ammonia in nearby Star Forming Regions) or networks of filaments; groups of protostellar cores have been produced by fragmentation of the filaments. The accretion rates at these cores are comparable to those of Class 0 objects. Due to time-step constraints the simulations stop early in their evolution. The star formation efficiency of this mechanism is extrapolated in time and is found to be 10-20%.
Cosmological SPH simulations: A hybrid multi-phase model for star formation  [PDF]
Volker Springel,Lars Hernquist
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06206.x
Abstract: We present a model for star formation and supernova feedback that describes the multi-phase structure of star forming gas on scales that are typically not resolved in cosmological simulations. Our approach includes radiative heating and cooling, the growth of cold clouds embedded in an ambient hot medium, star formation in these clouds, feedback from supernovae in the form of thermal heating and cloud evaporation, galactic winds and outflows, and metal enrichment. Implemented using SPH, our scheme is a significantly modified and extended version of the grid-based method of Yepes et al. (1997), and enables us to achieve high dynamic range in simulations of structure formation. We discuss properties of the feedback model in detail and show that it predicts a self-regulated, quiescent mode of star formation, which, in particular, stabilises the star forming gaseous layers of disk galaxies. The parameterisation of this mode can be reduced to a single free quantity which determines the overall timescale for star formation. We fix this parameter to match the observed rates of star formation in local disk galaxies. When normalised in this manner, cosmological simulations nevertheless overproduce the observed cosmic abundance of stellar material. We are thus motivated to extend our feedback model to include galactic winds associated with star formation. Using small-scale simulations of individual star-forming disk galaxies, we show that these winds produce either galactic fountains or outflows, depending on the depth of the gravitational potential. Moreover, outflows from galaxies in these simulations drive chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium, in principle accounting for the presence of metals in the Lyman alpha forest. (abridged)
A hybrid SPH/N-body method for star cluster simulations  [PDF]
D. A. Hubber,R. J. Allison,R. Smith,S. P. Goodwin
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts694
Abstract: We present a new hybrid Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)/N-body method for modelling the collisional stellar dynamics of young clusters in a live gas background. By deriving the equations of motion from Lagrangian mechanics we obtain a formally conservative combined SPH/N-body scheme. The SPH gas particles are integrated with a 2nd order Leapfrog, and the stars with a 4th order Hermite scheme. Our new approach is intended to bridge the divide between the detailed, but expensive, full hydrodynamical simulations of star formation, and pure N-body simulations of gas-free star clusters. We have implemented this hybrid approach in the SPH code SEREN (Hubber et al. 2011) and perform a series of simple tests to demonstrate the fidelity of the algorithm and its conservation properties. We investigate and present resolution criteria to adequately resolve the density field and to prevent strong numerical scattering effects. Future developments will include a more sophisticated treatment of binaries.
Mergers and star formation in SPH cosmological simulations  [PDF]
Patricia B. Tissera
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: The star formation rate history of galactic objects in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are analyzed in relation to their merger histories. The findings suggest that massive mergers produce more efficient starbursts and that, depending on the internal structure of the objects, double starbursts could also occur.
Evolution of the Mass-Metallicity relations in passive and star-forming galaxies from SPH-cosmological simulations  [PDF]
A. D. Romeo Velonà,J. Sommer-Larsen,N. R. Napolitano,V. Antonuccio-Delogu,S. Cielo,I. Gavignaud
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/770/2/155
Abstract: We present results from SPH-cosmological simulations, including self-consistent modelling of SN feedback and chemical evolution, of galaxies belonging to two clusters and twelve groups. We reproduce the mass-metallicity (ZM) relation of galaxies classified in two samples according to their star-forming activity, as parametrized by their sSFR, across a redshift range up to z=2. Its slope shows irrelevant evolution in the passive sample, being steeper in groups than in clusters. However, the sub-sample of high-mass passive galaxies only is characterized by a steep increase of the slope with redshift, from which it can be inferred that the bulk of the slope evolution of the ZM relation is driven by the more massive passive objects. (...ABRIDGED...) The ZM relation for the star-forming sample reveals an increasing scatter with redshift, indicating that it is still being built at early epochs. The star-forming galaxies make up a tight sequence in the SFR-M_* plane at high redshift, whose scatter increases with time alongside with the consolidation of the passive sequence. We also confirm the anti-correlation between sSFR and stellar mass, pointing at a key role of the former in determining the galaxy downsizing, as the most significant means of diagnostics of the star formation efficiency. Likewise, an anti-correlation between sSFR and metallicity can be established for the star-forming galaxies, while on the contrary more active galaxies in terms of simple SFR are also metal-richer. We discuss these results in terms of the mechanisms driving the evolution within the high- and low-mass regimes at different epochs: mergers, feedback-driven outflows and the intrinsic variation of the star formation efficiency.
Molecular hydrogen regulated star formation in cosmological SPH simulations  [PDF]
Robert Thompson,Kentaro Nagamine,Jason Jaacks,Jun-Hwan Choi
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/780/2/145
Abstract: It has been shown observationally that star formation (SF) correlates tightly with the presence of molecular hydrogen (H$_2$). Therefore it would be important to investigate its implication on galaxy formation in a cosmological context. In the present work, we track the H$_2$ mass fraction within our cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-3 using an equilibrium analytic model by Krumholz et al. This model allows us to regulate the star formation in our simulation by the local abundance of H$_2$ rather than the total cold gas density, and naturally introduce the dependence of star formation on metallicity. We investigate implications of the equilibrium H$_2$-based SF model on galaxy population properties, such as the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), baryon fraction, cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD), galaxy specific SFR, galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMF), and Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relationship. The advantage of our work over the previous ones is having a large sample of simulated galaxies in a cosmological volume from high-redshift to $z=0$. We find that low-mass halos with M$_{DM}<10^{10.5}$ M$_\odot$ are less efficient in producing stars in the H$_2$-based SF model at $z\geq6$, which brings the simulations to a better agreement with observational estimates of SHMR and GSMF at the low-mass end. This is particularly evident by a reduction in the number of low-mass galaxies at M$_\star\leq10^{8}$ M$_\odot$ in the GSMF. The overall SFRD is also reduced at high-$z$ in the H$_2$ run, which results in slightly higher SFRD at low-redshift due to more abundant gas available for star formation at later times. This new H$_2$ model is able to reproduce the empirical KS relationship at $z=0$ naturally without the need for setting its normalization by hand, and overall it seems to have more advantages than the previous pressure-based SF model.
Analyze of the star formation modeling algorithm in SPH code  [PDF]
Peter Berczik
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: The chemical and photometric evolution of star forming disk galaxies is investigated. Numerical simulations of the complex gasdynamical flows are based on our own coding of the Chemo - Dynamical Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamical (CD - SPH) approach, which incorporates the effects of star formation. The presented model describes well the time evolution of the basic dynamical, chemical and photometric parameters of a disk galaxy similar to the Milky Way. The metallicity, luminosity and colors obtained are typical for such disk galaxies. During the calculations we made an extended test of the proposed SF criteria. We find that the obtained results with different "gas" and "star" particle numbers are not only qualitatively but also quantitatively similar.
SEREN - A new SPH code for star and planet formation simulations  [PDF]
D. A. Hubber,C. P. Batty,A. McLeod,A. P. Whitworth
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014949
Abstract: We present SEREN, a new hybrid Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and N-body code designed to simulate astrophysical processes such as star and planet formation. It is written in Fortran 95/2003 and has been parallelised using OpenMP. SEREN is designed in a flexible, modular style, thereby allowing a large number of options to be selected or disabled easily and without compromising performance. SEREN uses the conservative `grad-h' formulation of SPH, but can easily be configured to use traditional SPH or Godunov SPH. Thermal physics is treated either with a barotropic equation of state, or by solving the energy equation and modelling the transport of cooling radiation. A Barnes-Hut tree is used to obtain neighbour lists and compute gravitational accelerations efficiently, and an hierarchical time-stepping scheme is used to reduce the number of computations per timestep. Dense gravitationally bound objects are replaced by sink particles, to allow the simulation to be evolved longer, and to facilitate the identification of protostars and the compilation of stellar and binary properties. At the termination of a hydrodynamical simulation, SEREN has the option of switching to a pure N-body simulation, using a 4th-order Hermite integrator, and following the ballistic evolution of the sink particles (e.g. to determine the final binary statistics once a star cluster has relaxed). We describe in detail all the algorithms implemented in SEREN and we present the results of a suite of tests designed to demonstrate the fidelity of SEREN and its performance and scalability. Further information and additional tests of SEREN can be found at the web-page http://www.astro.group.shef.ac.uk/seren.
Star formation rate and metallicity of damped Lyman-alpha absorbers in cosmological SPH simulations  [PDF]
Kentaro Nagamine,Volker Springel,Lars Hernquist
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07180.x
Abstract: We study the distribution of the star formation rate and metallicity of damped Lyman-alpha absorbers using cosmological SPH simulations of the Lambda cold dark matter model in the redshift range z=0-4.5. Our approach includes a phenomenological model of galactic wind. We find that there is a positive correlation between the projected stellar mass density and the neutral hydrogen column density (NHI) of DLAs for high NHI systems, and that there is a good correspondence in the spatial distribution of stars and DLAs in the simulations. The evolution of typical star-to-gas mass ratios in DLAs can be characterised by an increase from about 2 at z=4.5 to 3 at z=3, to 10 at z=1, and finally to 20 at z=0. We also find that the projected SFR density in DLAs follows the Kennicutt law well at all redshifts, and the simulated values are consistent with the recent observational estimates of this quantity by Wolfe et al. (2003a,b). The rate of evolution in the mean metallicity of simulated DLAs as a function of redshift is mild, and is consistent with the rate estimated from observations. The predicted metallicity of DLAs is generally sub-solar in our simulations, and there is a significant scatter in the distribution of DLA metallicity for a given NHI. However, we find that the median metallicity of simulated DLAs is close to that of Lyman-break galaxies, which is higher than the values typically observed for DLAs by nearly an order of magnitude. This discrepancy with observations could be due to an inadequate treatment of SN feedback in our current simulations, perhaps indicating that metals are not expelled efficiently enough from DLAs by outflows. Alternatively, the current observations might be missing the majority of the high metallicity DLAs due to selection effects. (abridged)
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