Abstract:
An elementary Ising spin model is proposed for demonstrating cascading failures (break-downs, blackouts, collapses, avalanches, ...) that can occur in realistic networks for distribution and delivery by suppliers to consumers. A ferromagnetic Hamiltonian with quenched random fields results from policies that maximize the gap between demand and delivery. Such policies can arise in a competitive market where firms artificially create new demand, or in a solidary environment where too high a demand cannot reasonably be met. Network failure in the context of a policy of solidarity is possible when an initially active state becomes metastable and decays to a stable inactive state. We explore the characteristics of the demand and delivery, as well as the topological properties, which make the distribution network susceptible of failure. An effective temperature is defined, which governs the strength of the activity fluctuations which can induce a collapse. Numerical results, obtained by Monte Carlo simulations of the model on (mainly) scale-free networks, are supplemented with analytic mean-field approximations to the geometrical random field fluctuations and the thermal spin fluctuations. The role of hubs versus poorly connected nodes in initiating the breakdown of network activity is illustrated and related to model parameters.

Abstract:
We study a zero-temperature phase transition in the random field Ising model on scale-free networks with the degree exponent $\gamma$. Using an analytic mean-field theory, we find that the spins are always in the ordered phase for $\gamma<3$. On the other hand, the spins undergo a phase transition from an ordered phase to a disordered phase as the dispersion of the random fields increases for $\gamma > 3$. The phase transition may be either continuous or discontinuous depending on the shape of the random field distribution. We derive the condition for the nature of the phase transition. Numerical simulations are performed to confirm the results.

Abstract:
We consider Ising model on edge-dual of uncorrelated random networks with arbitrary degree distribution. These networks have a finite clustering in the thermodynamic limit. High and low temperature expansions of Ising model on the edge-dual of random networks are derived. A detailed comparison of the critical behavior of Ising model on scale free random networks and their edge-dual is presented.

Abstract:
We generalize the belief-propagation algorithm to sparse random networks with arbitrary distributions of motifs (triangles, loops, etc.). Each vertex in these networks belongs to a given set of motifs (generalization of the configuration model). These networks can be treated as sparse uncorrelated hypergraphs in which hyperedges represent motifs. Here a hypergraph is a generalization of a graph, where a hyperedge can connect any number of vertices. These uncorrelated hypergraphs are tree-like (hypertrees), which crucially simplify the problem and allow us to apply the belief-propagation algorithm to these loopy networks with arbitrary motifs. As natural examples, we consider motifs in the form of finite loops and cliques. We apply the belief-propagation algorithm to the ferromagnetic Ising model on the resulting random networks. We obtain an exact solution of this model on networks with finite loops or cliques as motifs. We find an exact critical temperature of the ferromagnetic phase transition and demonstrate that with increasing the clustering coefficient and the loop size, the critical temperature increases compared to ordinary tree-like complex networks. Our solution also gives the birth point of the giant connected component in these loopy networks.

Abstract:
Many real world networks, such as social networks, are primarily formed through local interactions between agents. Additionally, in contrast with common network models, social and biological networks exhibit a high degree of clustering. Here we construct a class of network growth models based on local interactions on a metric space, capable of producing arbitrary degree distributions as well as a naturally high degree of clustering akin to biological networks. As a specific example, we study the case of random- walking agents, though most results hold for any linear stochastic dynamics. Agents form bonds when they meet at designated locations we refer to as "rendezvous points." The spatial distribution of the rendezvous points determines key characteristics of the network such as the degree distribution. For any arbitrary (monotonic) degree distribution, we are able to analytically solve for the required rendezvous point distribution.

Abstract:
The time evolution of the local field in symmetric Q-Ising neural networks is studied for arbitrary Q. In particular, the structure of the noise and the appearance of gaps in the probability distribution are discussed. Results are presented for several values of Q and compared with numerical simulations.

Abstract:
Here, we present an algorithmic model for growing networks with a broad range of biologically and technologically relevant degree distributions using only a small set of parameters. Specifying network connectivity via an assortativity matrix allows us to grow networks with arbitrary degree distributions and arbitrary modularity. We show that the degree distribution is controlled mainly by the ratio of node to edge addition probabilities, and the probability for node duplication. We compare topological and functional modularity measures, study their dependence on the number and strength of modules, and introduce the concept of anti-modularity: a property of networks in which nodes from one functional group preferentially do not attach to other nodes of that group. We also investigate global properties of networks as a function of the network's growth parameters, such as smallest path length, correlation coefficient, small-world-ness, and the nature of the percolation phase transition. We search the space of networks for those that are most like some well-known biological examples, and analyze the biological significance of the parameters that gave rise to them.Growing networks with specified characters (degree distribution and modularity) provides the opportunity to create surrogates for biological and technological networks, and to test hypotheses about the processes that gave rise to them. We find that many celebrated network properties may be a consequence of the way in which these networks grew, rather than a necessary consequence of how they work or function.This article was reviewed by Erik van Nimwegen, Teresa Przytycka (nominated by Claus Wilke), and Leonid Mirny. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewer's Comments section.The representation of complex interacting systems as networks has become commonplace in modern science [1-5]. While such a representation in terms of nodes and edges is near-universal, the systems so described are highly diverse. The

Abstract:
Using a probabilistic approach we study the parallel dynamics of fully connected Q-Ising neural networks for arbitrary Q. A Lyapunov function is shown to exist at zero temperature. A recursive scheme is set up to determine the time evolution of the order parameters through the evolution of the distribution of the local field. As an illustrative example, an explicit analysis is carried out for the first three time steps. For the case of the Q=3 model these theoretical results are compared with extensive numerical simulations. Finally, equilibrium fixed-point equations are derived and compared with the thermodynamic approach based upon the replica-symmetric mean-field approximation.

Abstract:
A basic model of a dynamical distribution network is considered, modeled as a directed graph with storage variables corresponding to every vertex and flow inputs corresponding to every edge, subject to unknown but constant inflows and outflows. We analyze the dynamics of the system in closed-loop with a distributed proportional-integral controller structure, where the flow inputs are constrained to take value in closed intervals. Results from our previous work are extended to general flow constraint intervals, and conditions for asymptotic load balancing are derived that rely on the structure of the graph and its flow constraints.

Abstract:
We compute the stationary in-degree probability, $P_{in}(k)$, for a growing network model with directed edges and arbitrary out-degree probability. In particular, under preferential linking, we find that if the nodes have a light tail (finite variance) out-degree distribution, then the corresponding in-degree one behaves as $k^{-3}$. Moreover, for an out-degree distribution with a scale invariant tail, $P_{out}(k)\sim k^{-\alpha}$, the corresponding in-degree distribution has exactly the same asymptotic behavior only if $2<\alpha<3$ (infinite variance). Similar results are obtained when attractiveness is included. We also present some results on descriptive statistics measures %descriptive statistics such as the correlation between the number of in-going links, $D_{in}$, and outgoing links, $D_{out}$, and the conditional expectation of $D_{in}$ given $D_{out}$, and we calculate these measures for the WWW network. Finally, we present an application to the scientific publications network. The results presented here can explain the tail behavior of in/out-degree distribution observed in many real networks.