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 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06275.x Abstract: We present radial surface brightness profiles for all five globular clusters in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, and for the four present members of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. These profiles are derived from archival Hubble Space Telescope observations, and have been calculated using the same techniques with which we measured profiles in our previous studies of LMC and SMC clusters (astro-ph/0209031 and astro-ph/0209046 respectively), apart from some small modifications. From the surface brightness profiles, we have determined structural parameters for each cluster, including core radii and luminosity and mass estimates. We also provide a brief summary of literature measurements of other parameters for these clusters, including their ages, metallicities and distances. Our core radius measurements are mostly in good agreement with those from previous lower resolution studies, although for several clusters our new values are significantly different. The profile for Fornax cluster 5 does not appear to be well fit by a King-type model and we suggest that it is a post core-collapse candidate. We examine the distribution of cluster core radii in each of the two dwarf galaxy systems, and compare these with the distribution of core radii for old LMC clusters. The three distributions match within the limits of measurement errors and the small sample sizes. We discuss the implications of this in the context of the radius-age trend we have previously highlighted for the Magellanic Cloud clusters.
 Michele Bellazzini Physics , 2012, Abstract: I briefly explore some relevant connections and differences between the evolutionary paths of dwarf galaxies and globular clusters.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/768/1/4 Abstract: The ability to measure metallicities and {\alpha}-element abundances in individual red giant branch (RGB) stars using medium-resolution spectra ($R \approx 6000$) is a valuable tool for deciphering the nature of Milky Way dwarf satellites and the history of the Galactic halo. Extending such studies to more distant systems like Andromeda is beyond the ability of the current generation of telescopes, but by co-adding the spectra of similar stars, we can attain the necessary signal-to-noise ratio to make detailed abundance measurements. In this paper, we present a method to determine metallicities and {\alpha}-element abundances using the co-addition of medium resolution spectra. We test the method of spectral co-addition using high-S/N spectra of more than 1300 RGB stars from Milky Way globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies obtained with the Keck II telescope/DEIMOS spectrograph. We group similar stars using photometric criteria and compare the weighted ensemble average abundances ([Fe/H], [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe]) of individual stars in each group with the measurements made on the corresponding co-added spectrum. We find a high level of agreement between the two methods, which permits us to apply this co-added spectra technique to more distant RGB stars, like stars in the M31 satellite galaxies. This paper outlines our spectral co-addition and abundance measurement methodology and describes the potential biases in making these measurements.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/eas/1148054 Abstract: In the last decade we witness an advent of new types of dwarf stellar systems in cluding ultra-compact dwarfs, ultra-faint dwarf spheroidals, and exotic globular clusters, breaking the old simple paradigm for dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. These objects become more intriguing, and understanding of these new findings be comes more challenging. Recently we discovered a new type of large scale structure in the Virgo cluster of galaxies: it is composed of globular clusters. Globular clusters in Virgo are found wandering between galaxies (intracluster globular clusters) as well as in galaxies. These intracluster globular clusters fill a significant fraction in the area of the Virgo cluster and they are dominated by blue globular clusters. These intracluster globular clusters may be closely related with the first dwarf galaxies in the universe.
 Physics , 1998, Abstract: Globular clusters (GCs) provide one way of determining when the most important periods of star formation in dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies occurred. Thus, they are also useful for comparing the star formation histories of dwarf and giant galaxies. We present results on the GC systems of 24 nearby dE galaxies imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find that the specific GC frequency, S_N, increases with M_V. Also, S_N in dEs is more like the values found in giant ellipticals rather than in spirals, and the mean S_N for nucleated dEs is roughly a factor of 2 higher than for non-nucleated dEs. The colors suggest that most of the GCs formed before the bulk of the stars in the galaxies.
 Physics , 1998, Abstract: Our current knowledge of M31's dwarf spheroidal companions is reviewed. Two topics of recent interest constitute the bulk of this review. First, color-magnitude diagrams reaching below the horizontal branch have been constructed for two M31 dwarf spheroidals based on images from HST/WFPC2. The horizontal branches are predominantly red in both galaxies, redder than expected for their metallicity based on Galactic globular clusters. Thus, the second parameter effect is seen in the M31 halo. Second, recent surveys have revealed three new dwarf spheroidal companions to M31. Thus, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are not as rare around M31 as previously thought and as a result, some properties of the M31 companion system have changed.
 Physics , 2013, Abstract: The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy is well known for its very high globular cluster specific frequency, SN=26. Furthermore, while the field star metallicity distribution peaks at [Fe/H]=-1, four of the five GCs have [Fe/H]<-2. Only about 5 percent of the field stars have such low metallicities. Hence, a very large fraction of about 1/5-1/4 of the most metal-poor stars belong to the four most metal-poor GCs. This implies that these clusters could, at most, have been a factor of 4-5 more massive initially. A second, even more extreme case may be the IKN dwarf galaxy where SN=124. Although metallicities are not accurately known, the GCs account for about 13 percent of the total V-band luminosity of IKN.
 Sidney van den Bergh Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/308413 Abstract: Most of the globular clusters in the main body of the Galactic halo were formed almost simultaneously. However, globular cluster formation in dwarf spheroidal galaxies appears to have extended over a significant fraction of a Hubble time. This suggests that the factors which suppressed late-time formation of globulars in the main body of the Galactic halo were not operative in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Possibly the presence of significant numbers of young'' globulars at R_{GC} > 15 kpc can be accounted for by the assumption that many of these objects were formed in Sagittarius-like (but not Fornax-like) dwarf spheroidal galaxies, that were subsequently destroyed by Galactic tidal forces. It would be of interest to search for low-luminosity remnants of parental dwarf spheroidals around the young'' globulars Eridanus, Palomar 1, 3, 14, and Terzan 7. Furthermore multi-color photometry could be used to search for the remnants of the super-associations, within which outer halo globular clusters originally formed. Such envelopes are expected to have been tidally stripped from globulars in the inner halo.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20354.x Abstract: We present BV photometry of four Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy globular clusters: Arp 2, NGC 5634, Palomar 12, and Terzan 8, obtained with the Danish telescope at ESO-La Silla. We measure the structural parameters of the clusters using a King profile fitting, obtaining the first reliable measurements of the tidal radius of Arp 2 and Terzan 8. These two clusters are remarkably extended and with low concentrations; with a concentration of only c = 0.41 +/- 0.02, Terzan 8 is less concentrated than any cluster in our Galaxy. Blue stragglers are identified in the four clusters, and their spatial distribution is compared to those of horizontal branch and red giant branch stars. The blue straggler properties do not provide evidence of mass segregation in Terzan 8, while Arp 2 probably shares the same status, although with less confidence. In the case of NGC 5634 and Palomar 12, blue stragglers are significantly less populous, and their analysis suggests that the two clusters have probably undergone mass segregation.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15027.x Abstract: We use N-body simulations to study the tidal evolution of globular clusters (GCs) in dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. Our models adopt a cosmologically motivated scenario in which the dSph is approximated by a static NFW halo with a triaxial shape. We apply our models to five GCs spanning three orders of magnitude in stellar density and two in mass, chosen to represent the properties exhibited by the five GCs of the Fornax dSph. We show that only the object representing Fornax's least dense GC (F1) can be fully disrupted by Fornax's internal tidal field--the four denser clusters survive even if their orbits decay to the centre of Fornax. For a large set of orbits and projection angles we examine the spatial and velocity distribution of stellar debris deposited during the complete disruption of an F1-like GC. Our simulations show that such debris appears as shells, isolated clumps and elongated over-densities at low surface brightness (>26 mag/arcsec^2), reminiscent of substructure observed in several MW dSphs. Such features arise from the triaxiality of the galaxy potential and do not dissolve in time. The kinematics of the debris depends strongly on the progenitor's orbit. Debris associated with box and resonant orbits does not display stream motions and may appear "colder"/"hotter" than the dSph's field population if the viewing angle is perpendicular/parallel to progenitor's orbital plane. In contrast, debris associated with loop orbits shows a rotational velocity that may be detectable out to few kpc from the galaxy centre. Chemical tagging that can distinguish GC debris from field stars may reveal whether the merger of GCs contributed to the formation of multiple stellar components observed in dSphs.
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