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UIT Astro-2 Observations of NGC 4449  [PDF]
Robert S. Hill,Michael N. Fanelli,Denise A. Smith,Theodore P. Stecher,the UIT Team
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1063/1.52826
Abstract: The bright Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4449 was observed by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) during the Astro-2 Spacelab mission in March, 1995. Far ultraviolet (FUV) images at a spatial resolution of ~3 arcsec show bright star-forming knots that are consistent with the general optical morphology of the galaxy and are often coincident with bright H II regions. Comparison of FUV with H-alpha shows that in a few regions, sequential star formation may have occurred over the last few Myr. The bright star forming complexes in NGC 4449 are superposed on a smooth, diffuse FUV background that may be associated with the H-alpha "froth."
Hot Interstellar Gas in the Irregular Galaxy NGC 4449  [PDF]
D. J. Bomans,Y. -H. Chu,U. Hopp
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/118384
Abstract: NGC 4449 is an irregular galaxy with a moderately high star formation activity. The massive stars in NGC 4449 have given rise to many bright HII regions, superbubbles, supergiant shells, and "chimney-like" radial filaments. ROSAT X-ray observations of NGC 4449 have revealed four point-like sources and a wide-spread diffuse emission. The spectral properties of the diffuse component suggest that the emission originates from hot interstellar gas. We have compared deep ground-based H-alpha images with the X-ray images of NGC 4449 to determine the relationship between the hot (10^6 K) and the warm (10^4 K) components of the interstellar gas. We have also used an archival Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 image of NGC 4449 taken through the F606W filter to examine the massive stellar content of the X-ray-emission regions. We find that hot interstellar gas exists in (1) active star forming regions, including the giant H II region CM 16, (2) probable outflows from star forming regions, and (3) the supergiant shell SGS2. The X-ray data have been used to derive the rms electron density, mass, and thermal energy of the hot interior of SGS2. Finally we discuss the origin of SGS2 and implications of the detection of diffuse X-rays in irregular galaxies.
The Star Clusters in the Irregular Galaxy NGC 4449  [PDF]
Andrea E. Gelatt,Deidre A. Hunter,J. S. Gallagher
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/318613
Abstract: We examine the star clusters in the irregular galaxy NGC 4449. We use a near-infrared spectrum and broad-band images taken with the HST to place a limit of 8--15 Myrs on the age of the bright central ojbect in NGC 4449. Its luminosity and size suggest that it is comparable to young super star clusters. However, there is a peculiar nucleated-bar structure at the center of this star cluster, and we suggest that this structure is debris from the interaction that has produced the counter-rotating gas systems and extended gas streamers in the galaxy. From the images we identify 60 other candidate compact star clusters in NGC 4449. Fourteen of these could be background elliptical galaxies or old globular star clusters. Of the star clusters, three, in addition to the central object, are potentially super star clusters, and many others are comparable to the populous clusters found in the LMC. The star clusters span a large range in ages with no obvious peak in cluster formation that might be attributed to the interaction that the galaxy has experienced.
Regular magnetic fields in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 4449  [PDF]
K. T. Chyzy,R. Beck,S. Kohle,U. Klein,M. Urbanik
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: We present a high-resolution VLA study of the total power and polarized radio continuum emission at 8.46 and 4.86 GHz of the irregular galaxy NGC 4449, known for its weak rotation and non-systematic gas motions. We found strong galaxy-scale regular magnetic fields, which is surprising because of a lack of ordered rotation required for the dynamo action. The strength of the regular field reaches 8 $\mu$G and that of the total field 14 $\mu$G, comparable to that of the total magnetic field strength in radio-bright spirals. The magnetic vectors in NGC 4449 form radial ``fans'' in the central region and fragments of a spiral pattern in the galaxy's outskirts. These structures are associated with large regions of systematic Faraday rotation, implying genuine galaxy-scale magnetic fields rather than random ones compressed and stretched by gas flows. The observed pattern of polarization B-vectors is similar to dynamo-type fields in normal spirals. Nonstandard, fast dynamo concepts are required to explain the observed field strengths, though it is unknown what kind of magnetic field geometry can be produced in slowly and chaotically rotating objects. The so far neglected role of magnetic fields for the dynamics and star formation in dwarf irregulars also needs to be revised.
Unveiling the Kinematics and Dynamics of Ionized Gas in the Nearby Irregular Galaxy NGC 4449  [PDF]
Margarita Valdez-Gutierrez,Margarita Rosado,Ivanio Puerari,Leonid Georgiev,Jordanka Borissova,Patricia Ambrocio-Cruz
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/344304
Abstract: A detailed kinematic analysis of ionized gas in the nearby irregular galaxy NGC 4449 is presented. Observations are conducted in the spectral lines of Halpha and [SII]. Our scanning Fabry--Perot interferometric observations are presented from both a global as well as a local perspective. We have analysed the global velocity field, the spatially extended diffuse gaseous component (DIG), the HII region populations, and, furthermore, have determined the rotation curve based on the heliocentric radial velocities of the global Halpha spatial distribution. Our results for NGC 4449 show that the optical velocity field has a decreasing value in radial velocity along the optical bar from NE to SW. The DIG component that permeates the entire galaxy was analysed (up to a limiting surface brightness of ~ 3.165x10^-5 ergs cm$^-2 s^-1 steradian^-1). We find that the diffuse gas component presents peculiar kinematical features such as abrupt velocity gradients and highly supersonic velocity dispersions (sigma~4 times the values of the nearest HII regions) but that its kinematical and dynamical influence is important on both global and local scales. The optical rotation curve of this nearby irregular shows that the NE sector rotates like a solid body (V_rot~40 km s^-1 at R=2 kpc). For the SW side, our results are not conclusive; the behavior of the gas at those locations is chaotic. We conclude that the origin of such complex kinematics and dynamics is undoubtedly related to the aftermath of an interaction experienced by this galaxy in the past (abridged).
The cluster population of the irregular galaxy NGC 4449 as seen by the Hubble Advanced Camera for Surveys  [PDF]
Francesca Annibali,Monica Tosi,Alessandra Aloisi,Roeland P. van der Marel
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/142/4/129
Abstract: We present a study of the star cluster population in the starburst irregular galaxy NGC 4449 based on B, V, I, and Ha images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. We derive the cluster properties such as size, ellipticity, and total magnitudes. Cluster ages and masses are derived fitting the observed spectral energy distributions with different population synthesis models. Our analysis is strongly affected by the age-metallicity degeneracy; however, if we assume a metallicity of ~1/4 solar, as derived from spectroscopy of HII regions, we find that the clusters have ages distributed quite continuously over a Hubble time, and they have masses from ~10^3 M_sun up to ~2 x 10^6 M_sun, assuming a Salpeters' IMF down to 0.1 M_sun. Young clusters are preferentially located in regions of young star formation, while old clusters are distributed over the whole NGC 4449 field of view, like the old stars (although we notice that some old clusters follow linear structures, possibly a reflection of past satellite accretion). The high SF activity in NGC 4449 is confirmed by its specific frequency of young massive clusters, higher than the average value found in nearby spirals and in the LMC (but lower than in other starburst dwarfs such as NGC 1705 and NGC 1569), and by the flat slope of the cluster luminosity function (dN(L_V)\propto L_V^{-1.5} dL for clusters younger than 1 Gyr). We use the upper envelope of the cluster log(mass) versus log(age) distribution to quantify cluster disruption, and do not find evidence for the high (90%) long-term infant mortality found by some studies. For the red clusters, we find correlations between size, ellipticity, luminosity and mass: brighter and more massive clusters tend to be more compact, and brighter clusters tend to be also more elliptical.
Cold dust and its relation to molecular gas in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 4449  [PDF]
C. Boettner,U. Klein,A. Heithausen
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20031009
Abstract: We present observations of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 4449 at 850 $\mu$m and 450 $\mu$m obtained with SCUBA at the JCMT. The distribution of the cold dust agrees well with that of the CO and H$\alpha$ emission. To explain the integrated mm- through far-infrared continuum spectrum three dust components are required, with temperatures of 16 K, 39 K and 168 K, respectively. The dust mass is dominated by the cold dust component; we derive a total dust mass of \~3.8 x10^6 Msun, and with the local gas-to-dust ratio of ~130 a total gas mass of M(HI+H_2}~4.9 x 10^8 Msun. Comparison with the HI mass leads to a total molecular gas mass of ~3.4 x 10^8 Msun. We derive a conversion factor of the CO line intensity to molecular hydrogen column density XCO = N(H_2)/I(CO) which is at least 11 times larger than the Galactic value. These values are in accord with the lower metallicity of NGC 4449.
Chandra Observations of the Luminous, O-Rich SNR in the Irregular Galaxy NGC 4449  [PDF]
D. J. Patnaude,R. A. Fesen
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/368124
Abstract: An analysis of a 29 ksec Chandra ACIS-S observation of the young, Cassiopeia-A like supernova remnant in the irregular galaxy NGC 4449 is presented. The observed 0.5-2.1 keV spectrum reveals the likely presence of several emission lines including O VIII at 0.65 keV and 0.77 keV, Ne X at 1.05 keV, Mg XI at 1.5 keV, and Si XIII at 1.85 keV. From the observed spectrum, we derive an N_H = 10^21 cm^-2 and an X-ray temperature of T = 9 * 10^6 K. A non-equilibrium ionization fit to the spectrum suggests an overabundance of oxygen around 20 times solar, consistent with the remnant's UV and optical emission-line properties. We discuss tht remnant's approximate X-ray derived elemental abundances and compare its X-ray spectrum and luminosity to other oxygen-rich remnants.
A tidally distorted dwarf galaxy near NGC 4449  [PDF]
R. M. Rich,M. L. M. Collins,C. M. Black,F. M. Longstaff,A. Koch,A. Benson,D. B. Reitzel
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1038/nature10837
Abstract: NGC 4449 is a nearby Magellanic irregular starburst galaxy with a B-band absolute magnitude of -18 and a prominent, massive, intermediate-age nucleus at a distance from Earth of 3.8 megaparsecs. It is wreathed in an extraordinary neutral hydrogen (H I) complex, which includes rings, shells and a counter-rotating core, spanning 90 kiloparsecs. NGC 4449 is relatively isolated, although an interaction with its nearest known companion-the galaxy DDO 125, some 40 kpc to the south-has been proposed as being responsible for the complexity of its HI structure. Here we report the presence of a dwarf galaxy companion to NGC 4449, namely NGC 4449B. This companion has a V-band absolute magnitude of -13.4 and a half-light radius of 2.7 kpc, with a full extent of around 8 kpc. It is in a transient stage of tidal disruption, similar to that of the Sagittarius dwarf near the Milky Way. NGC 4449B exhibits a striking S-shaped morphology that has been predicted for disrupting galaxies but has hitherto been seen only in a dissolving globular cluster. We also detect an additional arc or disk ripple embedded in a two-component stellar halo, including a component extending twice as far as previously known, to about 20 kpc from the galaxy's centre.
A Multi-wavelength MOCASSIN Model of the Magellanic-type Galaxy NGC 4449  [PDF]
O. ?. Karczewski,M. J. Barlow,M. J. Page,S. C. Madden
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921312008976
Abstract: We use the photoionisation and dust radiative transfer code MOCASSIN to create a model of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 4449. The best-matching model reproduces the global optical emission line fluxes and the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) spanning wavelengths from the UV to sub-mm, and requires the bolometric luminosity of 6.25e9 Lsolar for the underlying stellar component, M_d/M_g of 1/680 and M_d of 2.2e6 Msolar.
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