Abstract:
We report on the observation of freely decaying capillary wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid. The capillary wave turbulence spectrum decay is found to be self-similar in time with the same power law exponent than the one found in the stationary regime, in agreement with weak turbulence predictions. The amplitude of all Fourier modes are found to decrease exponentially with time at the same damping rate. The longest wavelengths involved in the system are shown to be damped by viscous surface boundary layer. These long waves play the role of an energy source during the decay that sustains nonlinear interactions to keep capillary waves in a wave turbulent state.

Abstract:
Formation of turbulence of capillary waves is studied in laboratory experiments. The spectra show multiple exponentially decreasing harmonics of the parametrically excited wave which nonlinearly broaden with the increase in forcing. Spectral broadening leads to the development of the spectral continuum which scales as $\propto f^{-2.8}$, in agreement with the weak turbulence theory (WTT) prediction. Modulation instability of capillary waves is shown to be responsible for the transition from discrete to broadband spectrum. The instability leads to spectral broadening of the harmonics, randomization of their phases, it isolates the wave field from the wall, eventually allows the transition from 4- to 3-wave interactions as the dominant nonlinear process, thus creating the prerequisites assumed in WTT.

Abstract:
We report the observation of the cross-over between gravity and capillary wave turbulence on the surface of mercury. The probability density functions of the turbulent wave height are found to be asymmetric and thus non Gaussian. The surface wave height displays power-law spectra in both regimes. In the capillary region, the exponent is in fair agreement with weak turbulence theory. In the gravity region, it depends on the forcing parameters. This can be related to the finite size of the container. In addition, the scaling of those spectra with the mean energy flux is found in disagreement with weak turbulence theory for both regimes.

Abstract:
We report experiments on the full space and time resolved statistics of capillary wave turbulence at the air-water interface. The three-dimensional shape of the free interface is measured as a function of time by using the optical method of Diffusing Light Photography associated with a fast camera. Linear and nonlinear dispersion relations are extracted from the spatio-temporal power spectrum of wave amplitude. When wave turbulence regime is reached, we observe power-law spectra both in frequency and in wave number, whose exponents are found in agreement with the predictions of capillary wave turbulence theory. Finally, the temporal dynamics of the spatial energy spectrum highlight the occurrence of stochastic bursts transferring wave energy through the spatial scales.

Abstract:
This work presents Direct Numerical Simulations of capillary wave turbulence solving the full 3D Navier Stokes equations of a two-phase flow. When the interface is locally forced at large scales, a statistical stationary state appears after few forcing periods. Smaller wave scales are generated by nonlinear interactions, and the wave height spectrum is found to obey a power law in both wave number and frequency in good agreement with weak turbulence theory. By estimating the mean energy flux from the dissipated power, the Kolmogorov-Zakharov constant is evaluated and found to be compatible with the exact theoretical value. The time scale separation between linear, nonlinear interaction and dissipative times is also observed. These numerical results confirm the validity of weak turbulence approach to quantify out-of equilibrium wave statistics.

Abstract:
A laboratory experiment was conducted inside a wind wave tank to investigate the wave induced turbulence. In this experiment, the wave surface elevation and velocity beneath the water surface were measured simultaneously to investigate the relation between the wave status and wave induced turbulence. The profile of the turbulent dissipation rate and Reynolds stress were calculated using experimental data. The effect of the wave status on turbulence is investigated with regard to the wind wave, swell, and mixed wave conditions. It was depicted that the turbulence decreased with increasing depth from the water surface and that the turbulence that was induced by a wave with larger wavelength and wave height is much stronger for the same wave status. Finally, we observed that the wind wave is more effective in activating the wave induced turbulence

Abstract:
We study experimentally the influence of dissipation on stationary capillary wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid by changing its viscosity. We observe that the frequency power law scaling of the capillary spectrum departs significantly from its theoretical value when the dissipation is increased. The energy dissipated by capillary waves is also measured and found to increase nonlinearly with the mean power injected within the fluid. Here, we propose an experimental estimation of the energy flux at every scale of the capillary cascade. The latter is found to be non constant through the scales. For fluids of low enough viscosity, we found that both capillary spectrum scalings with the frequency and the newly defined mean energy flux are in good agreement with wave turbulence theory. The Kolmogorov-Zakharov constant is then experimentally estimated and compared to its theoretical value.

Abstract:
We report the observation of capillary wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid layer in a low-gravity environment. In such conditions, the fluid covers all the internal surface of the spherical container which is submitted to random forcing. The surface wave amplitude displays power-law spectrum over two decades in frequency, corresponding to wavelength from $mm$ to a few $cm$. This spectrum is found in roughly good agreement with wave turbulence theory. Such a large scale observation without gravity waves has never been reached during ground experiments. When the forcing is periodic, two-dimensional spherical patterns are observed on the fluid surface such as subharmonic stripes or hexagons with wavelength satisfying the capillary wave dispersion relation.

Abstract:
We study the discrete wave turbulent regime of capillary water waves with constant non-zero vorticity. The explicit Hamiltonian formulation and the corresponding coupling coefficient are obtained. We also present the construction and investigation of resonance clustering. Some physical implications of the obtained results are discussed.

Abstract:
This paper describes the evolution of surface capillary waves of deep water excited by gradually increasing the lateral external force at a single frequency. The vertical velocities of the water surface are measured by using a Polytec Laser Vibrometer with a thin layer of aluminium powder scattering on the surface to reflect the laser beam. Nonlinear interaction processes result in a stationary Fourier spectrum of the vertical surface velocities (the same as the surface elevation), i.e. $I_\omega \sim \omega ^{ - 3.5}$. The observed spectrum can be interpreted as a wave-turbulent Kolmogorov spectrum for the case of `narrowband pumping' for a direct cascade of energy. Correlation dimension analysis of the whole development process reveals four distinct stages during the wave structure development and identifies the wave turbulence stage.