Abstract:
In this paper, we discuss general relativistic, self-gravitating and uniformly rotating perfect fluid bodies with a toroidal topology (without central object). For the equations of state describing the fluid matter we consider polytropic as well as completely degenerate, perfect Fermi gas models. We find that the corresponding configurations possess similar properties to the homogeneous relativistic Dyson rings. On the one hand, there exists no limit to the mass for a given maximal mass-density inside the body. On the other hand, each model permits a quasistationary transition to the extreme Kerr black hole.

Abstract:
In this paper, we describe an analytical method for treating uniformly rotating homogeneous rings without a central body in Newtonian gravity. We employ series expansions about the thin ring limit and use the fact that in this limit the cross-section of the ring tends to a circle. The coefficients can in principle be determined up to an arbitrary order. Results are presented here to the 20th order and compared with numerical results.

Abstract:
Highly accurate numerical solutions to the problem of Black Holes surrounded by uniformly rotating rings in axially symmetric, stationary spacetimes are presented. The numerical methods developed to handle the problem are discussed in some detail. Related Newtonian problems are described and numerical results provided, which show that configurations can reach an inner mass-shedding limit as the mass of the central object increases. Exemplary results for the full relativistic problem for rings of constant density are given and the deformation of the event horizon due to the presence of the ring is demonstrated. Finally, we provide an example of a system for which the angular momentum of the central Black Hole divided by the square of its mass exceeds one.

Abstract:
In this paper uniformly rotating relativistic rings are investigated analytically utilizing two different approximations simultaneously: (1) an expansion about the thin ring limit (the cross-section is small compared with the size of the whole ring) (2) post-Newtonian expansions. The analytic results for rings are compared with numerical solutions.

Abstract:
An iterative method is presented for solving the problem of a uniformly rotating, self-gravitating ring without a central body in Newtonian gravity by expanding about the thin ring limit. Using this method, a simple formula relating mass to the integrated pressure is derived to the leading order for a general equation of state. For polytropes with the index n=1, analytic coefficients of the iterative approach are determined up to the third order. Analogous coefficients are computed numerically for other polytropes. Our solutions are compared with those generated by highly accurate numerical methods to test their accuracy.

Abstract:
Zero age main sequence models of uniformly rotating stars have been computed for ten masses between 1.625 and 8 M_\odot and 21 rotation rates from zero to nearly critical rotation. The surface shape is used to distinguish rotation rather than the surface equatorial velocity or the rotation rate. Using the surface shape is close to, but not quite equivalent to using the ratio of the rotation rate to the critical rotation rate. Using constant shape as the rotation variable means that it and the mass are separable, something that is not true for either the rotation rate or surface equatorial velocity. Thus a number of properties, including the ratio of the effective temperature anywhere on the surface to the equatorial temperature, are nearly independent of the mass of the model, as long as the rotation rate changes in such a way to keep the surface shape constant.

Abstract:
In this paper we classify the free boundary associated to equilibrium configurations of compressible, self-gravitating fluid masses, rotating with constant angular velocity. The equilibrium configurations are all critical points of an associated functional and not necessarily minimizers. Our methods also apply to alternative models in the literature where the angular momentum per unit mass is prescribed. The typical physical model our results apply to is that of uniformly rotating white dwarf stars.

Abstract:
We explore a series expansion method to calculate the modes of oscillations for a variety of uniformly rotating finite disks, either with or without a dark halo. Since all models have the same potential, this survey focuses on the role of the distribution function in stability analyses. We show that the stability behaviour is greatly influenced by the structure of the unperturbed distribution, particularly by its energy dependence. In addition we find that uniformly rotating disks with a halo in general can feature spiral-like instabilities.

Abstract:
We study the dimensionless spin parameter $j (= c J/ (G M^2))$ of uniformly rotating neutron stars and quark stars in general relativity. We show numerically that the maximum value of the spin parameter of a neutron star rotating at the Keplerian frequency is $j_{\rm max} \sim 0.7$ for a wide class of realistic equations of state. This upper bound is insensitive to the mass of the neutron star if the mass of the star is larger than about $1 M_\odot$. On the other hand, the spin parameter of a quark star modeled by the MIT bag model can be larger than unity and does not have a universal upper bound. Its value also depends strongly on the bag constant and the mass of the star. Astrophysical implications of our finding will be discussed.

Abstract:
We calculate Keplerian (mass shedding) configurations of rigidly rotating neutron stars and quark stars with crusts. We check the validity of empirical formula for Keplerian frequency, f_K, proposed by Lattimer & Prakash, f_K(M)=C (M/M_sun)^1/2 (R/10km)^-3/2, where M is the (gravitational) mass of Keplerian configuration, R is the (circumferential) radius of the non-rotating configuration of the same gravitational mass, and C = 1.04 kHz. Numerical calculations are performed using precise 2-D codes based on the multi-domain spectral methods. We use a representative set of equations of state (EOSs) of neutron stars and quark stars. We show that the empirical formula for f_K(M) holds within a few percent for neutron stars with realistic EOSs, provided 0.5 M_sun < M < 0.9 M_max,stat, where M_max,stat is the maximum allowable mass of non-rotating neutron stars for an EOS, and C=C_NS=1.08 kHz. Similar precision is obtained for quark stars with 0.5 M_sun < M < 0.9 M_max,stat. For maximal crust masses we obtain C_QS = 1.15 kHz, and the value of C_QS is not very sensitive to the crust mass. All our C's are significantly larger than the analytic value from the relativistic Roche model, C_Roche = 1.00 kHz. For 0.5 M_sun < M < 0.9 M_max,stat, the equatorial radius of Keplerian configuration of mass M, R_K(M), is, to a very good approximation, proportional to the radius of the non-rotating star of the same mass, R_K(M) = aR(M), with a_NS \approx a_QS \approx 1.44. The value of a_QS is very weakly dependent on the mass of the crust of the quark star. Both a's are smaller than the analytic value a_Roche = 1.5 from the relativistic Roche model.