Abstract:
The role of chirality is discussed in unifying the anomaly and the tunneling formalisms for deriving the Hawking effect. Using the chirality condition and starting from the familiar form of the trace anomaly, the chiral (gravitational) anomaly, manifested as a nonconservation of the stress tensor, near the horizon of a black hole, is derived. Solution of this equation yields the stress tensor whose asymptotic infinity limit gives the Hawking flux. Finally, use of the same chirality condition in the tunneling formalism gives the Hawking temperature that is compatible with the flux obtained by anomaly method.

Abstract:
We examine Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild black hole in several reference frames using the quasi-classical tunneling picture. It is shown that when one uses, $\Gamma \propto \exp(Im [\oint p dr])$, rather than, $\Gamma \propto \exp(2 Im [\int p dr])$, for the tunneling probability/decay rate one obtains twice the original Hawking temperature. The former expression for $\Gamma$ is argued to be correct since $\oint p dr$ is invariant under canonical transformations, while $\int p dr$ is not. Thus, either the tunneling methods of calculating Hawking radiation are suspect or the Hawking temperature is twice that originally calculated.

Abstract:
We compute the corrections, using the tunneling formalisim based on a quantum WKB approach, to the Hawking temperature and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the Schwarzschild black hole. The results are related to the trace anomaly and are shown to be equivalent to findings inferred from Hawking's original calculation based on path integrals using zeta function regularization. Finally, exploiting the corrected temperature and periodicity arguments we also find the modification to the original Schwarzschild metric which captures the effect of quantum corrections.

Abstract:
Acoustic waves in fluids undergoing the transition from sub- to supersonic flow satisfy governing equations similar to those for light waves in the immediate vicinity of a black hole event horizon. This acoustic analogy has been used by Unruh and others as a conceptual model for `Hawking radiation.' Here we use variational methods, originally introduced by Brizard for the study of linearized MHD, and ray phase space methods, to analyze linearized acoustics in the presence of background flows. The variational formulation endows the evolution equations with natural Hermitian and symplectic structures that prove useful for later analysis. We derive a $2\times 2$ normal form governing the wave evolution in the vicinity of the `event horizon.' This shows that the acoustic model can be reduced locally (in ray phase space) to a standard (scalar) tunneling process weakly coupled to a unidirectional non-dispersive wave (the `incoming wave'). Given the normal form, the Hawking `thermal spectrum' can be derived by invoking standard tunneling theory, but only by ignoring the coupling to the incoming wave. Deriving the normal form requires a novel extension of the modular ray-based theory used previously to study tunneling and mode conversion in plasmas. We also discuss how ray phase space methods can be used to change representation, which brings the problem into a form where the wave functions are less singular than in the usual formulation, a fact that might prove useful in numerical studies.

Abstract:
There has been recent speculation that the tunneling paradigm for Hawking radiation could -- after quantum-gravitational effects have suitably been incorporated -- provide a means for resolving the (black hole) information loss paradox. A prospective quantum-gravitational effect is the logarithmic-order correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy/area law. In this letter, it is demonstrated that, even with the inclusion of the logarithmic correction (or, indeed, the quantum correction up to any perturbative order), the tunneling formalism is still unable to resolve the stated paradox. Moreover, we go on to show that the tunneling framework effectively constrains the coefficient of this logarithmic term to be non-negative. Significantly, the latter observation implies the necessity for including the canonical corrections in the quantum formulation of the black hole entropy.

Abstract:
Applying the Hamilton--Jacobi method we investigate the tunneling of photon across the event horizon of a static spherically symmetric black hole. The necessity of the gauge condition on the photon field, to derive the semiclassical Hawking temperature, is explicitly shown. Also, the tunneling of photon and gravitino beyond this semiclassical approximation are presented separately. Quantum corrections of the action for both cases are found to be proportional to the semiclassical contribution. Modifications to the Hawking temperature and Bekenstein-Hawking area law are thereby obtained. Using this corrected temperature and Hawking's periodicity argument, the modified metric for the Schwarzschild black hole is given. This corrected version of the metric, upto $\hbar$ order is equivalent to the metric obtained by including one loop back reaction effect. Finally, the coefficient of the leading order correction of entropy is shown to be related to the trace anomaly.

Abstract:
In this Letter we have derived the gravitational anomaly leading to the Hawking radiation from a fundamentally different perspective: it emerges due to the {\it{complimentary}} roles played by tunneling and (gravitational) anomaly. We have used the analogy of an early idea \cite{niel1} of visualizing chiral gauge anomaly as an effect of {\it{spectral flow}} of the energy levels, from the negative energy Dirac sea, across zero energy level in presence of gauge interactions. This was extended to conformal anomaly in \cite{fumita}. In the present work, we exploit the latter formalism in black hole physics where we interpret crossing the horizon of black hole (the zero energy level) as a spectral flow since it is also accompanied by a change of sign in the energy of the particle. Hence in our formulation the negative energy states below horizon play a similar role as the Dirac sea. We successfully recover the gravitational anomaly.

Abstract:
We present a version of acoustic black holes by using the principle of the Josephson effect. We find that in the case two superconductors $A$ and $B$ are separated by an insulating barrier, an acoustic black hole may be created in the middle region between the two superconductors. We discuss in detail how to describe an acoustic black hole in the Josephson junction and write the metric in the langauge of the superconducting electronics. Our final results infer that for big enough tunneling current and thickness of the junction, experimental verification of the Hawking temperature could be possible.

Abstract:
We present a short and direct derivation of Hawking radiation as a tunneling process, based on particles in a dynamical geometry. The imaginary part of the action for the classically forbidden process is related to the Boltzmann factor for emission at the Hawking temperature. Because the derivation respects conservation laws, the exact spectrum is not precisely thermal. We compare and contrast the problem of spontaneous emission of charged particles from a charged conductor.

Abstract:
We obtain the exact solutions of the radial part of the massless Klein-Gordon equation in the spacetime of both three dimensional rotating and four dimensional canonical acoustic black holes, which are given in terms of the confluent Heun functions. From these solutions, we obtain the exact scalar waves near the acoustic horizon. We discuss the analogue Hawking radiation of massless scalar particles and the features of the spectrum associated with the radiation emitted by these acoustic black holes.