Abstract:
Within entanglement theory there are criteria which certify that some quantum states cannot be distilled into pure entanglement. An example is the positive partial transposition criterion. Here we present, for the first time, the analogous thing for secret correlations. We introduce a computable criterion which certifies that a probability distribution between two honest parties and an eavesdropper cannot be (asymptotically) distilled into a secret key. The existence of non-distillable correlations with positive secrecy cost, also known as bound information, is an open question. This criterion may be the key for finding bound information. However, if it turns out that this criterion does not detect bound information, then, a very interesting consequence follows: any distribution with positive secrecy cost can increase the secrecy content of another distribution. In other words, all correlations with positive secrecy cost constitute a useful resource.

Abstract:
We consider the problem of secret key extraction when $n$ honest parties and an eavesdropper share correlated information. We present a family of probability distributions and give the full characterization of its distillation properties. This formalism allows us to design a rich variety of cryptographic scenarios. In particular, we provide examples of multipartite probability distributions containing non-distillable secret correlations, also known as bound information.

Abstract:
Quantum cryptography shows that one can guarantee the secrecy of correlation on the sole basis of the laws of physics, that is without limiting the computational power of the eavesdropper. The usual security proofs suppose that the authorized partners, Alice and Bob, have a perfect knowledge and control of their quantum systems and devices; for instance, they must be sure that the logical bits have been encoded in true qubits, and not in higher-dimensional systems. In this paper, we present an approach that circumvents this strong assumption. We define protocols, both for the case of bits and for generic $d$-dimensional outcomes, in which the security is guaranteed by the very structure of the Alice-Bob correlations, under the no-signalling condition. The idea is that, if the correlations cannot be produced by shared randomness, then Eve has poor knowledge of Alice's and Bob's symbols. The present study assumes, on the one hand that the eavesdropper Eve performs only individual attacks (this is a limitation to be removed in further work), on the other hand that Eve can distribute any correlation compatible with the no-signalling condition (in this sense her power is greater than what quantum physics allows). Under these assumptions, we prove that the protocols defined here allow extracting secrecy from noisy correlations, when these correlations violate a Bell-type inequality by a sufficiently large amount. The region, in which secrecy extraction is possible, extends within the region of correlations achievable by measurements on entangled quantum states.

Abstract:
It is shown that (i) all entangled states can be mapped by single-copy measurements into probability distributions containing secret correlations, and (ii) if a probability distribution obtained from a quantum state contains secret correlations, then this state has to be entangled. These results prove the existence of a two-way connection between secret and quantum correlations in the process of preparation. They also imply that either it is possible to map any bound entangled state into a distillable probability distribution or bipartite bound information exists.

Abstract:
The Unshared Secret Key Cryptography (USK), recently proposed by the authors, guarantees Shannon's ideal secrecy and perfect secrecy for MIMO wiretap channels, without requiring secret key exchange. However, the requirement of infinite constellation inputs limits its applicability to practical systems. In this paper, we propose a practical USK scheme using finite constellation inputs. The new scheme is based on a cooperative jamming technique, and is valid for the case where the eavesdropper has more antennas than the transmitter. We show that Shannon's ideal secrecy can be achieved with an arbitrarily small outage probability.

Abstract:
We show that no entanglement is necessary to distribute entanglement; that is, two distant particles can be entangled by sending a third particle that is never entangled with the other two. Similarly, two particles can become entangled by continuous interaction with a highly mixed mediating particle that never itself becomes entangled. We also consider analogous properties of completely positive maps, in which the composition of two separable maps can create entanglement.

Abstract:
We explore the duality between the simulation and extraction of secret correlations in light of a similar well-known operational duality between the two notions of common information due to Wyner, and G\'acs and K\"orner. For the inverse problem of simulating a tripartite noisy correlation from noiseless secret key and unlimited public communication, we show that Winter's (2005) result for the key cost in terms of a conditional version of Wyner's common information can be simply reexpressed in terms of the existence of a bipartite protocol monotone. For the forward problem of key distillation from noisy correlations, we construct simple distributions for which the conditional G\'acs and K\"orner common information achieves a tight bound on the secret key rate. We conjecture that this holds in general for non-communicative key agreement models. We also comment on the interconvertibility of secret correlations under local operations and public communication.

Abstract:
Current security techniques can be implemented with either secret key exchange or physical layer wiretap codes. In this work, we investigate an alternative solution for MIMO wiretap channels. Inspired by the artificial noise (AN) technique, we propose the unshared secret key (USK) cryptosystem, where the AN is redesigned as a one-time pad secret key aligned within the null space between transmitter and legitimate receiver. The proposed USK cryptosystem is a new physical layer cryptographic scheme, obtained by combining traditional network layer cryptography and physical layer security. Unlike previously studied artificial noise techniques, rather than ensuring non-zero secrecy capacity, the USK is valid for an infinite lattice input alphabet and guarantees Shannon's ideal secrecy and perfect secrecy, without the need of secret key exchange. We then show how ideal secrecy can be obtained for finite lattice constellations with an arbitrarily small outage.

Abstract:
For a discrete or a continuous source model, we study the problem of secret-key generation with one round of rate-limited public communication between two legitimate users. Although we do not provide new bounds on the wiretap secret-key (WSK) capacity for the discrete source model, we use an alternative achievability scheme that may be useful for practical applications. As a side result, we conveniently extend known bounds to the case of a continuous source model. Specifically, we consider a sequential key-generation strategy, that implements a rate-limited reconciliation step to handle reliability, followed by a privacy amplification step performed with extractors to handle secrecy. We prove that such a sequential strategy achieves the best known bounds for the rate-limited WSK capacity (under the assumption of degraded sources in the case of two-way communication). However, we show that, unlike the case of rate-unlimited public communication, achieving the reconciliation capacity in a sequential strategy does not necessarily lead to achieving the best known bounds for the WSK capacity. Consequently, reliability and secrecy can be treated successively but not independently, thereby exhibiting a limitation of sequential strategies for rate-limited public communication. Nevertheless, we provide scenarios for which reliability and secrecy can be treated successively and independently, such as the two-way rate-limited SK capacity, the one-way rate-limited WSK capacity for degraded binary symmetric sources, and the one-way rate-limited WSK capacity for Gaussian degraded sources.

Abstract:
Current security techniques can be implemented either by requiring a secret key exchange or depending on assumptions about the communication channels. In this paper, we show that, by using a physical layer technique known as artificial noise, it is feasible to protect secret data without any form of secret key exchange and any restriction on the communication channels. Specifically, we analyze how the artificial noise can achieve practical secrecy. By treating the artificial noise as an unshared one-time pad secret key, we show that the proposed scheme also achieves Shannon's perfect secrecy. Moreover, we show that achieving perfect secrecy is much easier than ensuring non-zero secrecy capacity, especially when the eavesdropper has more antennas than the transmitter. Focusing on the practical applications, we show that practical secrecy and strong secrecy can be guaranteed even if the eavesdropper attempts to remove the artificial noise. We finally show the connections between traditional cryptography and physical layer security.