Abstract:
We study a system of interacting spinless fermions in one dimension which, in the absence of interactions, reduces to the Kitaev chain [A. Yu Kitaev, Phys.-Usp. \textbf{44}, 131 (2001)]. In the non-interacting case, a signal of topological order appears as zero-energy modes localized near the edges. We show that the exact ground states can be obtained analytically even in the presence of nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions when the on-site (chemical) potential is tuned to a particular function of the other parameters. As with the non-interacting case, the obtained ground states are two-fold degenerate and differ in fermionic parity. We prove the uniqueness of the obtained ground states and show that they can be continuously deformed to the ground states of the non-interacting Kitaev chain without gap closing. We also demonstrate explicitly that there exists a set of operators each of which maps one of the ground states to the other with opposite fermionic parity. These operators can be thought of as an interacting generalization of Majorana edge zero modes.

Abstract:
We analyse the low temperature properties of a system of classical Heisenberg spins on a hexagonal lattice with Kitaev couplings. For a lattice of 2N sites with periodic boundary conditions, we show that the ground states form an (N+1) dimensional manifold. We show that the ensemble of ground states is equivalent to that of a solid-on-solid model with continuously variable heights and nearest neighbour interactions, at a finite temperature. For temperature T tending to zero, all ground states have equal weight, and there is no order-by-disorder in this model. We argue that the bond-energy bond-energy correlations at distance R decay as 1/R^2 at zero temperature. This is verified by Monte Carlo simulations. We also discuss the relation to the quantum spin-S Kitaev model for large S, and obtain lower and upper bounds on the ground state energy of the quantum model.

Abstract:
We identify and discuss the ground state of a quantum magnet on a triangular lattice with bond-dependent Ising-type spin couplings, that is, a triangular analog of the Kitaev honeycomb model. The classical ground-state manifold of the model is spanned by decoupled Ising-type chains, and its accidental degeneracy is due to the frustrated nature of the anisotropic spin couplings. We show how this subextensive degeneracy is lifted by a quantum order-by-disorder mechanism and study the quantum selection of the ground state by treating short-wavelength fluctuations within the linked cluster expansion and by using the complementary spin-wave theory. We find that quantum fluctuations couple next-nearest-neighbor chains through an emergent four-spin interaction, while nearest-neighbor chains remain decoupled. The remaining discrete degeneracy of the ground state is shown to be protected by a hidden symmetry of the model.

Abstract:
An exact analytical solution of the ground state problem of the isotropic classical Heisenberg model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice in external magnetic field $H$ is found for arbitrary ratio of diagonal to edge exchange constants $J_2/J_1$. The phase diagram of this model in the ($J_2/J_1, H/J_1$) plane is presented. It includes spin-flop, spin-flip and umbrella phases. The magnetization curves are found to be linear until saturation. It is shown numerically that the inclusion of the easy-axis anisotropy into the model leads to the appearance of the 1/3 magnetization plateau, corresponding to the collinear up-up-down spin structure. This explains the appearance of the 1/3 magnetization plateau in rare earth tetraborides RB$_4$. In particular, magnetization curve of the compound HoB$_4$ is explained.

Abstract:
We derive and study a spin one-half Hamiltonian on a honeycomb lattice describing the exchange interactions between Ir$^{4+}$ ions in a family of layered iridates $A_2$IrO$_3$ ($A$=Li,Na). Depending on the microscopic parameters, the Hamiltonian interpolates between the Heisenberg and exactly solvable Kitaev models. Exact diagonalization and a complementary spin-wave analysis reveal the presence of an extended spin-liquid phase near the Kitaev limit and a conventional N\'eel state close to the Heisenberg limit. The two phases are separated by an unusual stripy antiferromagnetic state, which is the exact ground state of the model at the midpoint between two limits.

Abstract:
Paramagnetic impurities in a quantum spin-liquid can result in Kondo effects with highly unusual properties. We have studied the effect of locally exchange-coupling a paramagnetic impurity with the spin-1/2 honeycomb Kitaev model in its gapless spin-liquid phase. The (impurity) scaling equations are found to be insensitive to the sign of the coupling. The weak and strong coupling fixed points are stable, with the latter corresponding to a noninteracting vacancy and an interacting, spin-1 defect for the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic cases respectively. The ground state in the strong coupling limit in both cases has a nontrivial topology associated with a finite Z2 flux at the impurity site. For the antiferromagnetic case, this result can be obtained straightforwardly owing to the integrability of the Kitaev model with a vacancy. The strong-coupling limit of the ferromagnetic case is however nonintegrable, and we address this problem through exact-diagonalization calculations with finite Kitaev fragments. Our exact diagonalization calculations indicate that that the weak to strong coupling transition and the topological phase transition occur rather close to each other and are possibly coincident. We also find an intriguing similarity between the magnetic response of the defect and the impurity susceptibility in the two-channel Kondo problem.

Abstract:
Kitaev's compass model on the honeycomb lattice realizes a spin liquid whose emergent excitations are dispersive Majorana fermions and static Z_2 gauge fluxes. We discuss the proper selection of physical states for finite-size simulations in the Majorana representation, based on a recent paper by Pedrocchi, Chesi, and Loss [Phys. Rev. B 84, 165414 (2011)]. Certain physical observables acquire large finite-size effects, in particular if the ground state is not fermion-free, which we prove to generally apply to the system in the gapless phase and with periodic boundary conditions. To illustrate our findings, we compute the static and dynamic spin susceptibilities for finite-size systems. Specifically, we consider random-bond disorder (which preserves the solubility of the model), calculate the distribution of local flux gaps, and extract the NMR lineshape. We also predict a transition to a random-flux state with increasing disorder.

Abstract:
We provide analytical and numerical evidence of a spin-triplet FFLO superconductivity in the itinerant Kitaev-Heisenberg model (anti-ferromagnetic Kitaev coupling and ferromagnetic Heisenberg coupling) on the honeycomb lattice around quarter filling. The strong spin-orbit coupling in our model leads to the emergence of 6 inversion symmetry centers for the Fermi surface at non zero momenta in the first Brillouin zone. We show how the Cooper pairs condense into these non-trivial momenta, causing the spatial modulation of the superconducting order parameter. Applying a Ginzburg-Landau expansion analysis, we find that the superconductivity has three separated degenerate ground states with three different spin-triplet pairings. This picture is also supported by exact diagonalizations on finite clusters.

Abstract:
We study the interplay between the Kitaev and Ising interactions on both ladder and two dimensional lattices. We show that the ground state of the Kitaev ladder is a symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phase, which is protected by a $\mathbb{Z}_2 \times \mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry. It is confirmed by the degeneracy of the entanglement spectrum and non-trivial phase factors (inequivalent projective representations of the symmetries), which are obtained within infinite matrix-product representation of numerical density matrix renormalization group. We derive the effective theory to describe the topological phase transition on both ladder and two-dimensional lattices, which is given by the transverse field Ising model with/without next-nearest neighbor coupling. The ladder has three phases, namely, the Kitaev SPT, symmetry broken ferro/antiferromagnetic order and classical spin-liquid. The non-zero quantum critical point and its corresponding central charge are provided by the effective theory, which are in full agreement with the numerical results, i.e., the divergence of entanglement entropy at the critical point, change of the entanglement spectrum degeneracy and a drop in the ground-state fidelity. The central charge of the critical points are either c=1 or c=2, with the magnetization and correlation exponents being 1/4 and 1/2, respectively. In the absence of frustration, the 2D lattice shows a topological phase transition from the $\mathbb{Z}_2$ spin-liquid state to the long-range ordered Ising phase at finite ratio of couplings, while in the presence of frustration, an order-by-disorder transition is induced by the Kitaev term. The 2D classical spin-liquid phase is unstable against the addition of Kitaev term toward an ordered phase before the transition to the $\mathbb{Z}_2$ spin-liquid state.

Abstract:
We present certain exact analytical results for dynamical spin correlation functions in the Kitaev Model. It is the first result of its kind in non-trivial quantum spin models. The result is also novel: in spite of presence of gapless propagating Majorana fermion excitations, dynamical two spin correlation functions are identically zero beyond nearest neighbor separation, showing existence of a gapless but short range spin liquid. An unusual, \emph{all energy scale fractionization}of a spin -flip quanta, into two infinitely massive $\pi$-fluxes and a dynamical Majorana fermion, is shown to occur. As the Kitaev Model exemplifies topological quantum computation, our result presents new insights into qubit dynamics and generation of topological excitations.